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Principles of Comparative Economics, 2 vols. 

Borderlands of Economics 

The Foundations of Indian Economics- 


Rural Economy of India 

Democracies of the East 

Food Planning for Four Hundred Millions 

Regional Sociology 

Introduction to Social Psychology (with N. N. Sen Gupta) 

Groundwork of Economics 

The Theory and Art of Mysticism 

Migrant Asia 

The Regional Balance of Man 

The Land Problems of India 

The Changing Face of Bengal 

Economic Problems of Modern India, 2 vols. (Ed.) 

Fields and Farmers in Oudh (Ed.) 

Man and His Habitation 

The Institutional Theory of Economics 

The Political Economy of Population 

The Economic History of India, 1600-1800 

The Indian Working Class 

Planning the Countryside 

Races, Lands and Food 

I Social Ecology 

II The Social Function of Art 

III The Social Structure of Values 

IV The Dynamics of Morals 

V The Symbolic Life of Man. 

The History of Indian Civilization, 2 vols. 

The Culture and Art of India 

The Philosophy of Social Science 

The Flowering of Indian Art : 

Growth and Spread of a Civilization (In the Press) 

The Cosmic Art of India (In the Press) 

The Philosophy of Personality (In the Press) 

The Destiny of Civilization (In the Press) 


















I. Introduction : A General Theory of Human Nature and 

Evolution i 

II. Evolution : An Open System of Hierarchy, Wholeness and 

Transcendence 1 3 

III. Homeostases and Values in Evolution 28 

IV. Human Ecology and Evolution 41 
V. Beyond the Primate : Grass, Tool and Human Nature 5 8 

VI. Beyond the Mammal : Retardation, Dependency and Society 73 

VII. Instinct and Intelligence in Human Social Evolution 98 

VIII. Homo Instabilis 123 

IX. The Transformation of Human Nature and Environment 139 

X. Open and Transcendent Evolution : Values as Laws and 

Directives of Human Evolution 158 

XI. The Morality of Human Evolution 170 

XII. The Vistas of Open Evolution 188 

Selected Bibliography 201 

Index 210 


Man lives in several dimensions or orders of environment : biological, 
social and ideal or transcendent. The old frame of reference of Geddes 
and Thomson for biological studies, viz. the interrelationships of Orga- 
nism, Function and Environment or Folk, Work and Place requires to be 
recast in three major ways for a "general" theory of human evolution. 

Firstly, the dynamic and multi-dimensional character of human environ- 
ment and adaptation is to be clearly recognised. Man's physical 
environment has no fix_d boundaries, while his social environment is 
assimilated into and enmeshed with the former. Together these consti- 
tute a dynamic unity that expresses itself in qualitatively higher dimensions 
of adjustment behaviour patterns, values and modes of social organisa- 
tion and experiences that arc transmitted along with the inherited mecha- 
nisms of adaptation. We need, therefore, to make clear the significance 
of man's social heredity vis-a-vis organic heredity for his selection and 
survival. Much more thin his genetical system, his external social heritage 
of values, traditions and institutions that registers the gains of the past 
and anticipates those of the future, constitutes the basis of his evolutionary 

Secondly, we have to envisage human adjustments in terms of recipro- 
cal or circular interaction or "transaction" of the "field" or "life-space," 
following the mode of thinking of Dcwey, Bcntley and Lewin, viz. Man- 
in-his multi-dimensional Environment. Man and Environment, both 
physical and human, through their reciprocal interchange and interpenetra- 
tion, continually transform themselves, and move far beyond their present 
equipments, resources and experiences. This forward-orientation involves 
qualitative elements of goal and value-seeking and fulfilment in human 
adaptation and evolution. 

Thirdly, the qualitative change in the pattern of human evolution 
includes self-transcending, purposive direction, orderliness and control. 
The accumulated force of man's environment and social traditions, values 
and experiences as well as conscious rational control of behaviour and 
environmental conditions bring about quick, continuous, ideally planned 
evolutionary advance in his case, and usher in unpredictable, transcendent 
values and potentialities. 

There are a forward-looking wholeness and directedness in Nature, 
Life and Mind which only can satisfactorily explain the adaptedness of the 
living creature to the environment through its total being, and not its 
particular organs and functions, its regularity of direction or tendency of 


sequences of movements and behaviour under a variety of conditions, and 
its exploration of new conditions and possibilities of the life-situation in 
the present as well as later phase of its career. Only a forward-oriented 
dynamism behind evolution can adequately interpret the chain of antici- 
patory instinctual behaviour in the insect and animal kingdom. Grubs 
prepare in advance chambers for the winged creatures into which they 
will be later transformed. Sea-weeds, fire-worms and fishes exhibit a 
sequence of reproductive behaviour coherently anticipating the rhythms 
of the moon and tides. Gregarious birds undertake periodic anticipatory 
flights equator-wards and back in the sequence of the seasons. The hom- 
ing, nesting and hibernation of many mammals forestall recurrent changes 
of season and weather. Many modern biologists, who call their field of 
study of animal behaviour "ethology," following the lead of Lorenz, 
Tinbergen, Thorpe and Hess, suggest that the highest animals develop 
certain elaborate forms of behaviour that are not inborn or "instinctive" 
in the old sense but which they do not need to "learn" either, and that 
depend on hitherto unrecognised sense-organs, or a sense of directcdness 
and forward-oriented ability to respond coherently to complex com- 
munication systems. Instincts are reconceived by them as a hierarchy of 
directed activities motivated from within, and susceptible to imprinting, 
priming and release at a variety of levels. 

In man due to his unique urges and capacities of symbolisation, re- 
flection and transcendence, the direct, purposeful and forward-looking 
orientation provides the major key to his evolutionary advance built up 
on the dim apprehension of the future of sub-human organisms and a 
continuous creative and transactive trend in a world of coordinated sign 
and signal systems. His eternally out-bound intellectual intuition, aesthe- 
tic empathy, moral aspiration and mystical apprehension of life, society 
and the cosmos as a whole are all universal mechanisms operative within 
the persistent, ascending evolutionary process that guide him beyond biolo- 
gical goals and values. Subordinating his narrow and finite goals and 
values to those of an open, symbolic community, not bound by space and 
time, these promote an unlimited moral order of mankind and cosmos. 
This is the summum bonum y the goal and law of his evolutionary direction. 

Man's biological heritage is overlaid and obscured by his social 
heritage of values and symbols in his evolutionary development. As a 
biological population is a pool of genes, so is human society a pool of 
values and symbols. Like genes, values and symbols vary, and are selected 
and transmitted from one generation to another. The value-and-symbol 
system not only determines the structure and functions of society and 
directs its evolution, but is itself subjected to an evolutionary process. The 
all-pervasive, flexible symbol complex of the human community, embody- 
ing its socialised concepts, goals and values, is the new basic mechanism 


at the dimension of psycho-social evolution superposed on the biological 
evolutionary system. This new socio-genic mechanism is structured and 
systematized into, and identified with the community's moral order and 
value-hierarchy, which is partly interior ised and inherited as the conscience 
of the individual, and partly learnt, taught and transmitted as the external 
social heritage. The moral order or value system itself evolves due to 
the dynamic interchange between the internal dispositions and potentialities 
of man, and his external legacy of values, symbols, groups and institutions. 
It takes complete and effective charge of both the adaptive education and 
socialization of the individual and the adaptation of human groups, insti- 
tutions and values to the open psycho-social environment of mankind- 
and-cosmos as a whole. 

The socio-genic mechanisms of human evolution are, therefore, essen- 
tially moral, directing men, societies and culture?, and hence the human 
species to ever richer values and possibilities. The latter are defined by 
reflective and ethical man in terms of man-with-man and man-with-cosmos 
harmonies and integrations. In spite of the profound ambivalences and 
contradictions of human nature that modern psycho-analysis has in parti- 
cular laid bare, the 'eupsychic' person moves deliberately, and hence ethi- 
cally, or spontaneously, and hence mystically towards broader and deeper 
wholeness, harmony and transcendence. 

Accordingly what we may call Evolutionary Transcendence^ with its 
imperatives of ever richer and greater wholeness, transcendence and unity 
of man with the mankind-and-cosmos whole, emerges out of man's own 
nature, out of his evolutionary status and role in the cosmos. Man's mora- 
lity the unique human art of living by, and for symbols undefinably 
controls him from beyond, and increasingly determines the pace, dimensions 
and boundaries of his evolution. It remoulds and reshapes his disposi- 
tions, values, strivings and capacities, fostering empathy and identity with 
something beyond and larger than himself. Morality in its higher evolu- 
tionary phase transcends society whence it had arisen, or includes finite 
society in the transcendent society. 

It is not a natural science oriented social science but rather a new 
human Bio-philosophy grounded in the theories of emergent evolution, 
of holism and of integrated levels in life, values and society that can bridge 
the present gulf between the biological and the social sciences. Darwin 
failed to stress that human evolution is fundamentally not an organic but 
a psycho-social transformation. Yet the above theories have grown out 
of Darwinian thought and provided the broad frame of reference of modern 
philosophy from Bergson, Samuel Alexander and Smuts to Whitehead, 
Broad and Conger. There are two basic scientific postulates of Bio-philo- 
sophy viz., first, that the reality or cosmos as a whole is a vast, open, in- 
divisible process of evolution that is differentiated into certain dimensions 

or phases integrated and co-ordinated with one another; and, second, that 
the procedure of thinking should be to focus upon the relations between 
the events and processes of evolution in its various dimensions or phases. 
Modern knowledge is moving towards the methods in which it studies 
realities as organisms rather than atoms or particles, and processes rather 
than structures, viewing also all organisms including Person, Society and 
Culture as viable and fluent, changing at any time and in several directions, 
and achieving a value through their togetherness, wholeness and transcen- 

Man pushes his evolution forward in many directions or sectors through 
ever-transcendent mind, values and dimensions of existence. Its end- 
products are Man the Macrocosm Cosmic Values and the transcendent 
Society of the Cosmos, "holistic" and "open" rather than fractionalised 
and circumscribed. Bio-philosophy using theories of spherical unity, con- 
tinuity and transcendence can alone adequately interpret the fusions, con- 
tinuities and balances of the Person-Value-and Cosmos schema. 

Bio-philosophy aids the formulation of what we may call a "general" 
evolutionary theory through three major unifying concepts. The first is 
the organismic view accepted by many philosophers, mathematical 
physicists and psychologists, but hardly by any social scientists, according 
to which all the three true social realities Human Personality, Values and 
Mankind-as-a Whole are "organisms" in which the plan of the whole 
governs the attributes and processes of the subordinate systems. The 
conclusions of the holistic or organismic theory of psychology and 
personality and of the Gestalt school need to be more fully integrated into 
the study of human evolution and values. The development of the unique 
human person, of values and of the multi-dimensional "world" of man 
is interlaced with one another. Neither Personality nor Values nor the 
enlarging World System can be understood in separation from one another, 
while each is a whole in terms of which its own parts in turn can only be 
rightly interpreted. Such interpretation rests on the appreciation of cir- 
cular causal systems and use of concepts defined by reference to the higher 
level phenomena exhibited by the larger or more harmonious wholes. 

The second is the notion that all true realities are also emergent 
or open systems, according to which they move forward to ever higher 
levels of organisation, exhibiting new qualities not entirely deducible in 
terms of the preceding stages. There are successive orders, dimensions 
or organisations of living systems, each distinct and self-contained, yet 
connected with one another in the hierarchy of nature. Bio-philosophy 
replaces the older concepts of form and matter by the categories of energy 
and organisation. Energy and organisation are animating principles in 
the highly complex and specialised systems of Personality, Values and 
Society no less than in the ecological communities, living organisms and 


cells. There is a continuous ascent in the level of energy and organisation 
characterised by the trend towards increased complexity, wholeness, pur- 
posiveness and macroscopic orderliness. It is contended by some physi- 
cists such as Schrod'nger that organisation is one of the major key cate- 
gories in the cosmos, and may actually regulate matter and not merely be 
derived from it. Their hypothesis is that centres of organisation exist 
independently of the matter in which they appear as concrete forms, each 
as an integral part of a harmonious and open cosmic whole. There is an 
endless continuity of organisation in the open evolutionary process through 
both its physical and organic dimensions. Simultaneously, the "open 
system" manifests an increasing tendency to keep at a distance from equili- 
brium. Man, values and the environment of the human community are 
never in equilibrium, but at the same time spontaneously move towards 
greater organisation, wholeness and purposiveness. 

But for the inherent, infinite potentialities of human nature, values and 
world to acquire greater balance, wholeness and organisation there would 
be no problems nor meanings of human evolution and culture. The 
forward-oriented concepts of man's personality, values and self-actualisa- 
tion transcend both his environment and himself. It is only in terms of 
openness, communion with mankind and cosmos as a whole and trans- 
cendence that we can truly evaluate human nature and evolution in respect 
to all human efforts i.e. to all values. These provide, indeed, the crite- 
rion of judgment of ethical codes and systems of different societies and cul- 
tures embodying what may be called 'biological wisdom* or the law of 
man's progressive evolution. 

The openness of human person, societies and values is an essential 
condition of awareness of, and adjustment to, all phases of experience in 
their totality, of constructive creativeness and of what the semanticists call 
'extensional orientation,' the psychologists term 'self-actualisation, or 'self- 
transcendence', the evolutionary ethicists term * trans -humanism' or 'neo- 
humanism,' and the philosophers define as the all-encompassing being of 
transcendence. Due to the continuous improvement of human commu- 
nications and inter- thinking, mankind shows ever deeper, broader and 
more intense social activities, values and experiences. These bind the 
various peoples of the earth in an intricate, ramifying web of values, sym- 
bols and culture an integrated, global evolutionary machinery that realises 
new intrinsic and transcendent values and orders of existence for man. 
Human evolution ever advances on the basis of human communion, crea- 
tiveness and openness to values and experiences at successive dimensions. 

The third is the concept that the view-points termed 'mechanistic' 
and 'finalistic' in biology are not contradictory, but rather exhibit what 
Niels Bohr calls a complementary relationship connected with men's 
position as observers of nature. Accordingly, instinctive and conscious 


behaviour, stability and change, unity and individuation, freedom and 
determinism, intellect and intuition, and instrumental and intrinsic 
values comprise antinomic and complementary modes of adaptation to the 
environment. The notion that these have mutually exclusive complemen- 
tary applications is of major significance for a unified theory of evolu- 
tion in Bio-philosophy. Bio-philosophy finds the multi-dimensionality, 
polarity and ultimate unity of polar human tendencies as the essence of 
human goals and values, and establishes the logic of dialectic and the con- 
cept of immanence as the theoretical model of human evolution. 

Bio-philosophy will, no doubt, have as vigorous an impact on the 
thought pattern of civilization in the coming decades as mathematical 
physics has today. The area where this impact will be felt most will be 
that of the orders or dimensions of integration in biological social systems. 
In the new methodology of Bio-philosophy, the philosophy of Nature, 
Life and Mind and the philosophy of Values would be reconciled 
with each other; and both rescued from an unduly limited terrestrial out- 
look but rather would conceive of Nature, Life and Values in several 
dimensions with their vistas of the progressive realisation of the whole, 
of ever richer man-with-cosmos and man-with-rnan concords and trans- 
cendences. Human Evolution still goes on. The cosmos ever transforms 
man as it is itself transformed by his mind and values. 

The present volume is an expansion and revision of lectures delivered 
at the University of Bihar in the autumn of 1959. The theme was sug- 
gested to me in view of the Centennial Celebration of the publication date 
of Darwin's Origin of Species (November 24, 1859). My intellectual in- 
debtedness will be plain to experts : to Patrick Geddes, Bertalanffy and 
Julian Huxley, biologists; to Malinowski, Ashley Montagu and La Barre, 
anthropologists; to Freud, Jung and Flugel, psychoanalysts; to George 
Mead, Gordon Allport and Gardner Murphy, psychologists; to Giddings, 
Sorokin and Mumford, sociologists; and to Bergson, Dewey and White- 
head, philosophers. They are all specialists, who are at the same time 
humanists, and have given an enlarged meaning and elegance to the prin- 
ciples and processes of life, mind and society. Their methods and con- 
clusions have been helpful for a bio-philosophical consideration of man's 
unique evolutionary transcendence, and his control through society and 
values, of himself and his dimensions of existence and development. This 
has involved a widening of the conceptual frame-work and tools and fresh 
co-ordination and synthesis of bio-philosophical facts and theories derived 
from separated domains of knowledge that are now by and large logic- 
tight compartments with their limited descriptions of the human person, 
values and society as realities. 

In the present most grave crisis ever faced by man in his long and 
chequered history, a unified Bio-philosophical model of human evolution 


and values will, it is hoped, help to restore his trust in the human per- 
sonality, values and potentialities, and in the ecological, psychological and 
spiritual oneness of mankind the destiny of human evolution. 

Certain materials of the volume have appeared as articles in the 
Philosophy and Pbenemenological Research, and the Journal of Sociology 
and Social Research, U.S.A. and the Archiv Fur Rechts-und Social 
philosophic, West Germany. My thanks are due to my pupils, Mr. S. K. 
Khinduka for the revision of the proofs, and Dr. Kumud Prabha Trivedi 
for the preparation of the Index. 

University of Lucknow RADHAKAMAL MUKERJBE 

Vijaya Dasami, 1962 



Beyond Biological Evolution 

Human Evolution is entirely different in its aim, mechanism and course 
from evolution in the animal realm. Man's environment and evolution are 
not only physical but also social. His adjustive mechanisms are more 
psychological and cultural than physiological. In organic evolution it is 
only where mind reaches its fullest development, as in the Primates, do 
social relations and organisation really emerge. Conversely, only where 
mutual aid, division of labour and symbolic communication become suffi- 
ciently developed to permit social integration does the mental life show a 
high degree of complexity, freedom and transcendence. Social and mental 
development converges in the biological series, each representing a facet 
of the same high organisational dimension. The dynamic give-and-take 
between man and his many-dimensional environment establishes the in- 
creasing, mutually interdependent roles of his symbolising, self-transcending 
mind and symbolic social inheritance in his evolution. Both the abstract 
mind and the social environment, created by concepts and symbols, are 
characterised by "openness" and transcendence. These are so unprecedent- 
ed that they have changed the mode, dimension and direction of biological 
evolution that now completes and transcends itself in human evolution. 
The notion of transcendence is strictly correct, crucial and generic. The 
human dimension of evolution obviously presents new features that surpass 
those of organic evolution. 1 The architecture of organic and human evolu- 
tion reveals itself in ever superior and more complex patterns of selective 
and purposive control, openness, harmony and transcendence in a spiral of 
progress from the biological to the social-psychological and moral dimension 
or order. 

The study of the onward course of evolution should, accordingly, be 
rooted in a recognition of the basic transformation of the processes, means 
and ends of evolution. The transition from biological to human social 
evolution is marked by triple major shifts : the mechanisms change from 
haphazard, automatic, natural selection to conscious social policy, confor- 
mity to ethical code and individual learning and acquisition; second, the 
instruments are transformed from genetic equipment and mutation to the 

1 See Huxley: Evolution in Action; also Roe and Simpson (Ed.): Behaviour and 


social and symbolic heritage and the uniqueness, creativity and self-trans- 
cendence of the individual; and the goal is altered from mere efficiency and 
survival to the creation, fulfilment and extension of symbols and intrinsic 
values accruing from the dynamic reciprocity between mind, values and 

Man has become the symbol-and-value-using animal, and in the 
"model" of human evolution proposed, human values should not only 
include "self-actualisation," "creativity" and "psychic integration," as 
suggested by several modern psychologists, but also wholeness, commun- 
ion and self-transcendence as defined by the fulfilment of his as yet un- 
realised nature and potentialities. The most distinctive productive activities 
and strivings of man are in the field of symbols and intrinsic values that 
are beyond-biological and transcendent, and are more than instruments of 
adaptation and survival. These follow their own autonomous laws of 
spherical unity, continuity and identity, and are derived from man's essential 
being that his mind identifies with the ultimate reality or Being. The truth, 
goodness and transcendence of Being embody themselves as laws, directives 
and imperatives of evolution. What man essentially is, is mirrored in evolu- 
tion, though not fully. Evolution, like man himself, is inexhaustible, un- 
predictable and transcendent. 

Human Evolution Infinitely Open 

Intrinsic and transcendent values and purposes of human life entirely 
change the dimension on which evolution occurs. Human evolution is 
fraught with the unknown potentialities of human mind, personality and cos- 
mos as wholes as an essential part of human adaptation. The scheme of 
human evolution that Darwinism describes, is limited to the specific and 
circumscribed bio-social situation, and bears no relation to the potentialities 
of human life in its whole dimension the emergent processes, the organic 
creativeness, orderliness and directedness, and the infinitely "open" course 
and pattern of evolution. A unified evolutionary theory acknowledges 
the universal and open trend of evolution to develop new patterns beyond 
the stability of the organism and its well-adapted mode of behaviour, and 
discover new potentials of Life and Organisation. Human Values and 
purposes embody the human organism's exploration and transformation 
of the potentialities that the cosmic structure provides for him. The 
evolutionary career of man, indeed, holds in its bosom the transcendent 
possibilities of cosmic evolution itself. 

The vast garden of Nature hides germs and roots that grow and mature 
into manifold organic forms and patterns, which individually and collectively 
appear to be noble and beautiful, trivial and bizarre, monstrous and loath- 
some, and are mingled indifferently useless weeds, noxious herbs, beautiful 
flowering plants, seed-bearing cereals and fruit-bearing trees. Evolution 
brings the disorderly forms of vegetation in relation to one another, and gives 


us glimpses of increasing orderliness, directedness and solidarity. The 
whole heterogeneous garden in space and time achieves in the course of 
evolution an ever richer, more harmonious, more complete Life and Orga- 
nisation. This integrative trend is more than merely mechanical, but yields 
intimations of a kind of wholeness, openness, directedness and transcendence 
that become values and purposes what man's reflective self identifies with 
its own creative nature, telos and destiny. It is meanings, values and pur- 
poses in the cosmos-mind that counteract the operation of the second law 
of thermo-dynamics, prevent the natural trend towards universal entropy, 
and build up ever richer and more completely organised patterns of energy 
cosmic minds, universal personalities and comprehensive macrocosm. 
Everything else in Nature tends towards steady dissipation, disorganisation 
and chaos; only Life and Mind reveal an unending enrichment of their or- 
ganisation through the patterns of human values and possibilities. Values 
and possibilities that man encounters in the course of evolution are unlimit- 
ed and indeterminate, constantly impelling him forward towards indefin- 
able new ranges of insight, appreciation and dedication. The modern 
psychologist's goals of mental health and security, integration and balance, 
and those of self-actualisation and autonomy are not based on the correct 
model of human evolution in which the dynamics of self-transcendence and 
integrated harmony of opposites of self-awareness and love, individuation 
and unity, existence and essence play the decisive role. Human goals and 
values ever recede due to the "holistic," harmonising drive and tendency 
of the human mind that must strive for ever fresh union of antinomies at 
different orders or dimensions of being. That is how man achieves his 
essence, the totality of his ever unrealised, unpredictable humanness. 
Another way of stating the same truth is that Evolution, infinitely open 
and ever moving forward, is the creation and realisation of ever more 
harmonious, universal, transcendent values, experiences and possibilities. 
Man will ever find something qualitatively new and strange about his own 
nature and cosmos. 

The Triangular Evolutionary Frame : Man Values and World System 

The general notion of hierarchical ordering and dimension of whole- 
ness and openness of the living system needs to be formulated by Bio- 
philosophy. This requires to be spelled out in respect of the triple realities : 
the human personality, the values and the organisation of mankind and 
cosmos-as-wholes the stable and universal patterns of human relations, 
behaviour and norms that have become the end-products as well as trustees 
and agents of the evolutionary process. 

A fundamental "general" theory of human evolution rests on the 
notions of value and value-hierarchy as central in the evolutionary picture 
of man and universe, and measuring the progressive phases in the course 
and control of evolution. It is built within the triangular frame-work 


represented by the coordinates : Man in Evolution Values World 
System. The dynamic mutual interdependence or "transaction" of the 
three basic complementary phases of Human Evolution has three facets : 
(i) the qualitative improvement, behaviour and enlargement of human 
mind and personality; (2) the progress of social living in conformity to a 
universal, hyper-personal moral code grounded in the enrichment and 
diffusion of intrinsic and transcendent values; and (3) the maximum exten- 
sion of boundaries of the human community, marking in their togetherness 
man's steady advance. The three-fold interwoven concepts of the World- 
Man, Cosmic or Transcendent Values and orientation to Mankind-as-a 
Whole have their basis in the very structure of the human organism, pro- 
gressing and surviving creatively as such. These comprise an absolute 
basis, therefore, for any dynamic human ecology, sociology, ethics and 
theory of personality and values. The entire ecology and psychology of 
"man and superman," the scale of human goals, values and ideals and the 
system of inter-cultural relations will have to be re-thought for human 
survival and progress. 

The triple, interdependent realities and systems of Personality Values- 
and Mankind-as-a Whole represent the culminating products as well as the 
agents and guardians of the cosmic evolutionary process. Each of these 
social realities, thriving by reciprocal interchange and interpenetration with 
the other two, and representing as it does the most complex configuration 
in the cosmos, shows similar formal or functional processes and relations 
(isomorphism) at the various levels from atom and molecule to protoplasm, 
and from animal behaviour to human values and transcendence. 

All through there is operative the grand cosmic law of integral and 
orderly directedness the prescient, dynamic principle existing in all matter, 
energy and organisation in the cosmos. This is the basic hypothetical 
construct or "model" of man underlying a "unified" theory of Evolution. 
Not merely the whole body and mind of man, but also his whole personality, 
behaviour and symbols and the whole values and experiences of mankind 
and cosmos "holistically" and synergistically interact, interpenetrate and 
direct total human evolution. 

Integral View of Human Nature and Potentialities 

An integral, evolutionary view of human nature, values and potentia- 
lities, grounded in an interchange between the changing psyche and the 
changing physical and social environment, should be developed and assi- 
milated into a new, unified evolutionary model. This would supply the 
necessary corrective for the notion of immutable impulses, dispositions and 
faculties of the human individual of classical psychology. The latter was 
largely the product of the stress of man's physical and mental isolation and 
egoism that resulted from the impact of the Darwinian theory of evolution 
on social thinking. Modern psychological science is now seeking a new 


and thorough synthesis of human behaviour and evolution, based on the 
recognition that human behaviour evolves a wholly new set of mechanisms, 
those of abstract intelligence, learning, symbolisation and valuation. These 
evolve in their own way, and alter the processes of biological adjustment 
through an increasing selective" and purposeful control over the physical 
and social environment, which is another aspect of an increasing actualisation 
of human values and potentialities. 

Recent advances in the biological and social sciences have largely 
corrected the lop-sidedness and exaggeration of i9th century Social Dar- 
winism. This postulated a more or less fixed human nature and an ego- 
centric mode of human adaptation that were oriented largely towards cut- 
throat competition and struggle for existence on the scene of the earth. 
Man's aggression and violence, war and rape were emphasised, while his 
disposition and capacity for building up families, folks, communities and 
larger social integrations, and the corresponding endowments of tenderness, 
affection and altruism were underscored. He experiences deep and spon- 
taneous feelings of identity and empathy with fellowman; the highest values 
and experiences he has prized in his long and steady mental growth are 
those that transcend his narrow self, and can be shared with the most ex- 
tended community he can conceive. There are deeply ingrained social 
impulses, emotions and values of man which bind him to other men by 
ties that cross the boundaries of time and space. The evolutionary deve- 
lopment of his abstract intelligence, learning habits and values of self- 
transcendence, love and altruism altogether transform human nature, and 
change the dimension and tempo of human evolution. 

An altogether new model of human nature and behaviour is now 
emerging from biological and behavioural studies that would consider the 
psycho-biological isolation and ego-centric, competitive and aggressive 
behaviour of the individual, posited by the classical social sciences, taking 
their cue from the older biology, over-simple, lop-sided and near-patho- 
logical. 1 

First, the classical model of fixed human impulses and dispositions is 
replaced today by a dynamic model in which human nature is considered 
as a "field" function of both genotype and physical and social environment. 
Insect social evolution shows the possibility of complex and harmonious 
social relationship and behaviour through changes in genotype, giving 
insect societies a permanence and continuity not met with at the human 
level. But the dominance of genetic mechanisms in the evolution of social 
insects has meant a rigidity that excludes susceptibility to change. Human 
nature is most plastic, adaptable and versatile, moulded in the crucibles of 
change. Man is the most viable animal in his rapidly changing environment. 

1 Compare in particular Goldstein : Human Nature in the IJgkt of Psyckopathology ; 
Murphy : Human Potentialities; Maslow : Motivation and Personality; Moustakas : The Self; 
andAUport: Becoming. 


Secondly, the model of human evolution, working on the basis of the 
creative interchange of impulses, needs and values with the social environ- 
ment, establishes the scientific criteria of the social nature of man and of 
common human dispositions and behaviour. It also stresses the psycho- 
logical significance of social conditioning and canalisation, and plasticity and 
flexibility for the individual along with his rational, egoistic and aggressive 

Mankind-as-a Whole , an 'Empirical Scientific Model 

Human conditioning, canalisation and learning rest on a highly deve- 
loped system of signs and symbols which is uniquely human. Man alone 
among the animals can create,' change and manipulate signs and symbols 
for stimulating ideas and feelings of fellowmen and groups. His system 
of symbolic communication, adaptive, flexible and resilent, is not only the 
foundation of his sustenance, communication and way of living but also 
of his awareness of self and not-self. His social consciousness, needs and 
values are largely products and functions of his symbol complex. These 
comprise a whole new array of mechanisms that have their own trend of 
evolution, direct the course and processes of human biological and psycho- 
social adaptation, and remould man-and-man, and man-and-environment 

Because mankind comprises a single species, there is a biological basis 
for a common system of symbols or culture based en common human needs, 
strivings and values. But throughout history man has Jived and struggled 
in divergent and often hostile systems of culture. These have not only 
prevented him from undertaking his true evolutionary role, but have also 
sharpened the physical and mental differences of separate sub-groups, 
practising inbreeding and operating separate symbol-based systems of adap- 
tation and specialisation. The biological unity of man and the psychological 
unity of human nature both consequently suffer an eclipse. He becomes 
less fitted in performing his unique function in nature and actualising new 
possibilities for evolving Life, Mind and Values. 

Yet the biological unity of Life and Man and the psycho-social unity 
of Mind and Values are fundamental and appropriately receive emphasis 
in recent thinking. The entire course of evolution is now envisaged as 
bringing about such modification of function and structure of organisms, 
and such adaptation to other similar organisms as result in the development 
and persistence of larger entities, inclusive of the smaller, through succes- 
sive and higher levels of complexity and integration. Redfield thus sum- 
marises the findings of a recent Symposium : "Fitness way means coopera- 
tion for mutual benefit both between species and within intra-specific 
populations as well as between parts of the organism. Departing from the 
language of science, one might say that the individual metazoan, the in- 
fusorian population, the ant-colony, the flock of fowl, the tribe and the 


world economy areall exemplifications of nature's grand strategy. >n Social 
science is, indeed, having the full impact of the dominating biological con- 
cept of integrative levels of complexity and integration. The highest 
level of evolutionary complexity and integration is reached in the psyche 
of man as "the man-binding and the time-binding animal", identifying his 
needs, values and experiences with those of his fellowmen who surround, 
precede and succeed him. The search for man's social nature and feelings 
and common dispositions, needs and values is today as strong among human 
biologists and psychologists as among anthropologists and sociologists. 2 
Gordon Allport presses for a discrimination between the root desires of men 
in all countries that are very similar and their divergent and incompatible 
demands, and between intrinsic values and instrumental, and advocates 
cross cultural investigations for the comparison of human motives in many 
lands. 3 A "high-ceiling" as contrasted with a "low-ceiling psychology" 
(in Maslow's sense) shows that the root desires are common to all man- 
kind and are shared values, and that healthy or "eupsychic" persons seek a 
balanced and harmonious realisation of their higher and lower desires, 
interests and values. 4 Man has, no doubt, a tendency towards unity, whole- 
ness, freedom and transcendence of personality, towards universal and 
transcendent values. Only a Bio-philosophy (or Philosophical Psychology) 
may establish the generic social impulses, interests and strivings of human 
nature and with this the common goals and values of men. On the level 
of human affairs the conditioning and canalisation by a system of word 
symbols and values, such as the Declaration of Human Rights, the Code 
and Charter of industrial workers, women and children of all nations, and 
International Organisations like the UNO, ILO, FAO and UNESCO 
increasingly modify human goals and strivings and promote the organisa- 
tion of mankind-as-a whole, mankind-feeling and mankind-morality. 
These are rooted in a common genetic system of human needs, values and 

There are deep and generic "pan-human" universals as regards human 
needs, values and behaviour that transcend historical and cultural differences. 
The older ethno-centrism is gradually giving way to a scientific study 
of cultures that reveals not only universal motivations, values and strivings 
among men, but also formal similarities of social structures and functions. 
The universal elements of the heritage of traditions, sentiments and values 
demand unified, empirically based psychological concepts of the mature, 
Integrated, e eupsychic" human person and a basically common denominator 

1 Levels of Integration in Biological Social Systems, Biological Symposia, Vol. 8. 
a Morris : Varieties of Human Value. 

3 Normative Compatibility in the light of Social Science in Maslow (Ed.) : 
Knowledge in Human Values, p. 149. 

4 Maslow : Motivation and Personality. 


of humanness common human needs, values and strivings that aspire 
beyond and above the differences of cultural norms and standards among 
different societies and peoples. Mankind-as-a whole, grounded in the 
wholeness of both man and culture, and functioning as one great organisa- 
tion, reservoir and directive agency of the higher order of human values and 
code of morality, must be accepted as an empirically derived scientific 
model of the theory of human evolution. 

The Balance of Human Uniqueness and Humanness 

Thirdly, human evolution must be regarded as a stage where individuals 
not only fit themselves to, or select their suitable environment, but also can 
control and reshape the environment for themselves, for their society, and 
for the human species in terms of emerging needs, values and possibilities. 
Man combines the biological advantages of increasing versatility, unique- 
ness and transcendence as an individual in changing physical conditions 
with those of order and harmony in the social tradition and organisation. 
Human social organisation can be biologically favourable if only it 
can establish a balance betwen the expression and repression of naive impulses 
and needs and idiosyncratic, self-transcending values and experiences, and 
between the relatively stifling encrustation of specific tradition and culture 
and the broad commonness of humanity. Such balance can alone offer 
opportunities for the development of the unique traits, capacities and 
achievements of the individual and the extension of the boundaries of the 
human community. Therein lie his evolutionary fitness and prospects of 
further advance. 

As both human uniqueness and humanness obtain balanced fulfil- 
ment, these can give rise to new kinds of environment that may elicit yet 
finer differentiation and more sensitive integration of the inner life. Man's 
biological and spiritual goal and fulfilment coincide. For the supreme 
creative expression of the individual that springs from the plumbing of the 
deepest recesses of his mind also reveals his most extensive possible con- 
sciousness and values. The twin flowers of human mental evolution blos- 
som together the range, depth and uniqueness of individual creativity; 
and the communion, interpenetration and solidarity of minds, which 
Bergson finds analogous with the phenomena of 'endosmis*. 

The garden of mankind today nips these flowers of mental evolution 
in the bud. Mankind is now divided and segregated into vast, hostile 
blocs of social and economic systems and cultures that lead, on the one hand, 
to excessive rigidities of thinking, feeling and ways of living of considerable 
masses of men in different continents, and on the other, to a disruption 
of the world tradition. The crisis in contemporary civilization has also 
become an evolutionary crisis due as much to the large-scale lapse of free- 
dom, worth and dignity of the individual, and invasion of the personal 
sphere of artistic and scientific deployment of the resources of life, as to the 


depreciation of the common humanness of mankind. The massive, imper- 
sonal contemporary trends of rigidity and refractoriness of organised, 
industrial cultures, the thorough-going, relentless exploitation of the great 
earth and its peoples by modern science and technology, and the disinte- 
gration of the world system spell evolutionary retrogression and peril for 
the human species. 

The World Environment and Tradition of Man 

Alone among the animals man has developed an open world tradition 
and culture. First, every major discovery in man's science and technology, 
every development of industry, commerce and communication widen the 
limits of his environment and increase the range and scope of both competi- 
tion and cooperation between peoples having overlapping areas of occu- 
pation, diffusion and control. The human environment is now global in 
its extent. Because of the wide range of the human environment genetic 
specialisation alone cannot ensure man's survival. His adaptive potentialities 
combine the methods of genetic differentiation with progressive control 
and modification of the environments by his social traditions, experience 
and learning. Human evolution, and especially civilized human evolution, 
thrives on both genetic and cultural plasticity as mechanisms of adaptation 
to the shifting and enlarging human environments. Second, the heritage 
of man's knowledge, skill and culture also tends to be global. With the 
increase of the range and complexity of his environment and the diffusion 
and pooling of world traditions^ of knowledge and experience, he will have 
to understand his evolutionary future in terms of the species and of his world- 
wide environment. 

The openness of his global environment, unified by science, com- 
munication and culture, can no longer be resisted by ignorance, prejudice 
and unfamiliarity with a strange historic social system and tradition. Neither 
the wholeness of the human personality, nor the emerging unity of the 
present world community permits this. 

The Imperatives of Global Human "Evolution 

This poses the most urgent intellectual and moral issue for both human 
survival and growth in the present generation how to establish a balance 
between the familiar and the strange, the intimate' and the remote goals, 
values and ways of living without losing depth, integrity and freedom of 
the self. The open world system of the twentieth century with its new 
global qualities and involvements, calls for new personality traits, goals 
and values for man's progress. Contemporary man has to acquire a new 
intellectual understanding and appreciation of distant and unfamiliar peoples, 
develop world- wide economic techniques, skills and resources with them 
in practical terms, and make common cause with them in terms of moral 
and spiritual equality. He has to replace the cruel and exploitative 


inhumanity of the i9th century world system by a new global communion, 
compassion and consecration. This implies that the scope of human know- 
ledge, appreciation and experience, the boundaries of human communities, 
the dominant type of personality, the hierarchy of values and the code of 
personal, national and international rights and obligations will be funda- 
mentally transformed, reoriented to the majesty of the vast, productive and 
shared life of mankind-as-a whole as this century progresses. Such are the 
imperatives of world tradition and culture in the present environment of 
man, which has acquired a global 'quality than ever before, and now deter- 
mines the conditions of his security and survival. 

Man, both as individual and as species, has to recognise this momentous 
change in the quality and scale of his environment, and utilize all his re- 
sources for his proper psycho-social adjustment. A world-wide physical 
and social environment and a global consciousness offer indeed a richness and 
diversity of human opportunities and potentialities, hitherto unprecedented 
in his career. His inner harmony and balance with the grand aims and 
commitments of a world system which seem to be the results of natural 
selection, can only now further his evolutionary advance. The control 
of his genetical equipment in the direction of a greater endowment with 
the creative forces of understanding, imagination and empathy, altruism 
and mankind -fee ling, and the enlargement of his acquired environment into 
a true open World Community are the next steps of his progress. 

Human Possibilities 

The tempo of human social evolution is accelerated due to the adven- 
ture and creativeness of a few world-individuals as well as organised global 
social policy and effort. Both can overcome the limitations imposed 
by the excessive genetical endowment of anger, competitiveness and aggres- 
siveness and by the tardy genetical improvement of the race. A single, 
gifted, sensitive and courageous individual with a new human love, com- 
passion and reverence and vision of the earth-community may play a more 
significant role in human advance than any skilful or drastic eugenic policy. 
For, he can transform the minds and hearts of the people in a single genera- 
tion; while new heritable qualities take several generations to be established 
within the genetic stock of the community. In man the evolutionary 
process has obviously lifted itself from the bio-physiological to the moral 
level of performance and transformation; and correspondingly both the 
criteria and techniques of human adjustments and progress have been 
transformed. All the levels of human nature and behaviour, biological, 
social and transcendent, are involved, all the elemental drives and satisfac- 
tions of curiosity, challenge, love, beauty, goodness and compassion are 
orchestrated in human transformation. This onward march is epitomised 
and symbolised by transcendent personalities, universal values and global 
culture in their endless, creative interchange. 


Human evolution has been, indeed, enormously quickened by the 
supersession of the mechanisms of heredity and variation by those of varie- 
gation, control and transmission of the inevitably enlarged environment at 
the political, economic and cultural dimensions. Civilized man's world- 
wide milieu so remoulds his goals and values that the gifts of his arts, sciences 
and religion, beauty, goodness, and sensitivity increasingly enrich entire 
mankind. In fact this change-over has made evolution not merely purpose- 
ful and global, but also introduced into it the unpredictable drive and impul- 
sion of the rebels, artists and seers, all world-minded persons today. 

The latter are the true prophets of human evolutionary advance. They 
realise themselves in an endless procession of value-creations and value- 
hierarchies, transcending value-experiences that embody fresh, rich and 
sensitive integrations with mankind-and-universe-as wholes, making for 
further creative integrations and fulfilments of human nature and possibi- 
lities through the unlimited give-and-take or interpenetration that trans- 
forms all parties to the transaction Man Values Universe. 

Transcendence as the Principle and Value of Human Evolution 

Man's evolutionary destiny is Transcendence surpassing himself 
through a reverential identification with the unbounded cosmos-totality, 
God or Being, rather than finding fulfilment in any final self-sufficiency or 
wholeness. Transcendence is another name of Being with which man, in 
his spiritual attitude, endeavours to identify himself. Because Transcen- 
dence is the foundation of all finite creatures who live and move in It, 
man's relations to fellow creatures becomes reverential. Reverence pro- 
claims Transcendence in all human relations, behaviour and values. It 
fuses love and knowledge with universal compassion and altruism, and 
builds up the unlimited moral community. In reverence man strives after, 
and achieves the perfect merger of I and Thou, of all and All. 

The generic experience is that the perfection of human character and 
values is expressed in the reverence for man, for life, for society, for man- 
kind, and for cosmos as a whole, revealing a complete identification of 
human choice and action with transcendental meaning and purpose. Such 
moral and spiritual transcendence in reverence remakes both the cosmos 
and nature of mm exploring and unravelling their respective possibilities 
to the full. The enlarged universe of Human Mind, ever extending its 
resources for the deepening, enrichment and expansion of Life and Organi- 
sation, is the pattern of One-Universe and Man-System, that widens the 
prospects of human evolution for both individual and species within an 
over-all unity of world science, economy, fine arts and knowledge. Man's 
conscience, faith and imagination link him undefinably to the Being of 
Transcendence. Jaspers observes : "The God-head is origin and goal; it 
is peace of mind. There is security. It is impossible for man to lose 
Transcendence without ceasing to be man." It is Human Transcendence 


which keeps evolution on-going and open. 
Cosmic Imagination 

The cosmos in the course of evolution attains its richest and most 
comprehensive integrated mode of potential energy in Human Transcen- 
dence. The transcending Human Imagination bears in its womb both the 
memory of the past and anticipation of the future, and keeps alive the un- 
ending striving and organisation of Evolution. Cosmic Imagination relates 
as warp and woof the different parts of the whole fabric of Nature, Life 
and Values with one another, weaving them all in the shuttles of increasing 
purpose in the loom of Time. This unfolding, majestic garment that 
enshrouds space is called Evolution. As Montague says, "Between creative 
evolution and creative imagination there is more than a rhetorical analogy." 1 

The uniform, objective and scientific models, principles and laws of the 
human individual as an open One World-Man and of the human social 
organisation as an open Society of Mankind-as-a Whole, and the principles 
and values of Human Transcendence can redefine and direct the evolutionary 
trends towards greater wholeness, higher organisation and superior macros- 
copic orderliness at the psycho-social dimension. Such scientific constructs 
can develop what a recent UNESCO Committee has defined as "a 
mankind awareness, a mankind conception, a will towards mankind", and 
constitute the basis of man's further evolutionary development. 

A careful examination of individual and collective evolution, both 
present and past, shows that if modern man, whether in the West or in the 
East, continues in the Atomic Age as unconsciously, dysfunctionally and 
dysteleologically as he has been doing in the recent past, there is probability 
that he may destroy himself. Man alone among the animals has the know- 
ledge of wise and proper biological behaviour, and also of the penalties of 
biological short-sightedness and stupidity the regression and suicide of the 
species. Never in the life history of man has there been a more desperate 
need for him to understand and implement the truths and values of the 
ecology to which he belongs than in the present age. 

1 Great Visions of Philosophy, p. 25. 



Criteria and Mechanisms of Organic and Human Evolution 

The nineteenth century made us familiar with the concept of biological 
progress. The evolutionists consider man as the crown of creation the 
pinnacle of progress defined as the cosmic evolutionary process. They, 
however, attach no significance to the notions of higher and lower orga- 
nism, regarding the evolutionary process as one in which a species 
progressively adjusts itself to its environment. A species closely or 
near closely adjusted to its environment survives. Man's mere growth, 
propagation and survival become, therefore, the only measure of his adapta- 
tion to the environment. For biological relativism there is no question of 
superiority or inferiority among men, ants and tape-worms all equally 
appropriately adjusted to their environments. Some survival, no doubt, 
is the- outcome of retrogression, parasitism, over-specialisation and rigid 
adaptation to a fixed environment. Man himself could never have emerged 
as the result of close adaptation and equilibrium in a static environment; 
while early in his evolutionary career he strove after, and linked some 
"good" with his growth, adaptation and survival, with his way of living. 
It is the sense of values that is an implicit attribute of evolution in general, 
and that articulates itself and becomes conscious in human evolution which 
provides the psychological and ethical standards for human survival. There 
is, therefore, no automatic nor inevitable trend of human evolution in the 
right direction. Man as the thinking, value-creating and moral animal 
chooses the right goals and values for himself, for the species and for all 
life; and such goals and values must be rooted in human evolution. Yet 
many biologists today completely exclude goals and values from the evolu- 
tionary picture of man. They delink all faculties, values and experiences 
that are uniquely human from the organic processes. Their notion of 
man's environment remains largely physical, eschewing even bio-ecological 
factors, while his adaptation and equilibrium are considered in static, 
mechanistic and materialistic terms. 

Man, to be sure, is not appropriately fitted to his environment, nor is 
the environment static, fixed or closed for him. Specialisation is particu- 
larly insignificant for the natural history of the human animal. His mental 
and social evolution indefinitely increases the range and flexibility of his 
adaptation to changing conditions without the need of any highly specialised 
and detailed structural and physiological adjustments within a given, cir- 


cumscribed environment. Over-specialised elaborations, however adaptive 
these might have been to the environmental conditions, have led to the 
fall and extinction of many species of animals. In human evolution physical 
adaptability is replaced by social adaptability, and physical inheritance by 
inheritance of values, traditions and techniques. The variability of human 
goals and values supersedes homeostatic constancy, while human adaptation 
and survival are judged by what is basically wholesome, good or worthy 
in the psychological and ethical sense. Due to the emergence of goal, 
value and purpose, man is an "open" creature, ever adapting himself to 
a large variety of ways of life. The human environment is "open", achiev- 
ing ever-increasing range, wholeness and harmony. Human evolution is 
equally "open" and transcendent, oriented towards ever receding, ever 
more vital and harmonious qualities and values. 

Reversal of Entropy in Evolution 

A fundamental "general" theory of human evolution rests on the 
conception of an "open" system, i.e. an essentially self-directed and active 
organisation that tends towards increased heterogeneity, wholeness and 
macroscopic orderliness. According to the classical law of entropy the 
natural trend of events is directed towards a chaotic state, characterised by 
maximum disorder or, in other terms, towards thermo-dynamic equilibrium 
where all processes come to a stop. Schrodinger has recently stressed that 
the organism continually exacts "orderliness" or "negative entropy" from 
outside to counterbalance the increasing chaos or entropy towards which 
it would degrade as a closed system. In this view the organism cannot be 
compared with the "closed system", marked by the tendency towards static 
equilibrium. The principle operative here is "order out of order", which 
is far different from the thermo-dynamic laws that result statistically from the 
principle of disorder in physical science. 1 Nature abhors a strictly closed 
or isolated system to which only is the second law of thermo-dynamics 
applicable. It is probable that entropy does not apply to the cosmos as a 
whole which is a majestic, creative process continually expanding and pro- 
gressively differentiating. In life entropy is apparently reversed. Wiener 
aptly remarks : "Organism is opposed to chaos, disintegration, to death. 
Organisms tend to maintai i the level of their organisation as a local enclave 
in the general stream of increasing entropy, of increasing chaos and de-differ- 
entiation. Life is an island here and now in a dying world." Again, "the 
process by which we living beings respect the general stream of corruption 
and decay is known as homeostasis." 2 Biological evolution is anti-entropic. 
It ever marches forward showing an increase of variety and improvement of 
organisation, running counter to the second law of thermo-dynamics in 

1 What is Life? 

2 Wiener : The Human Use of Human Beings. 


physical science with its processes of degradation of energy and trend 
towards uniformity. In the living organism we, accordingly, find a preser- 
vation v of order and an avoidance of equilibrium. To use Bertalanffy's 
words, the organism is an "open system" with constant interchange of 
materials and energy with the environment. It is marked by the reversal 
of entropy, with a trend towards increase of heterogeneity and complexity 
rather than towards degradation to homogeneous low-level organisation. 
He observes : "A living organism is a hierarchical order of open systems 
which maintains itself in the exchange of components by virtue of its system- 
conditions." 1 Hierarchical organisation, on the one hand, and the characteris- 
tics of open systems, on the other, are, according to him, fundamental prin- 
ciples of living nature; and the advancement of theoretical biology will 
depend mainly upon the development of a theory of these two fundamentals. 
Similarly Need ham remarks that the hierarchy of relations from the mole- 
cular structure of carbon compounds to the equilibrium of species and ecolo- 
gical wholes will perhaps be the leading idea of the future. 2 Modern biology 
has discovered that in the living body there is a ceaseless interchange of 
atoms of carbon, phosphorus or nitrogen called "tracer elements" in which 
the pattern of the body is fully maintained. The cooperation proceeds 
from level to level of organisation from the ultimate particles, the protons 
and electrons, to atoms, from atoms to molecules, from molecules to the 
tiniest living particles, from these to cell-constituents, from cell-constituents 
to cells, from cells to organs, from organs to the human body, from the 
human body and mind to human society and finally from society to man- 
kind-as-a whole. As we recount the levels of organisation we find that 
"each is larger than the one before, but also essentially more complex and 
more highly organised. In terms of space, each contains the smaller ones 
within itself. In every individual development, that of man no less than 
the meanest of them, the new individual starts at a low level, and climbs 
up to its perfection." 3 The basic issues of modern biology are relations 
of subordination and centralisation, patterns of cooperation, goal-directive- 
ness and dimensions and possibilities of freedom, orderliness and wholeness 
open to positions, shapes and organisations of life. The tasks of Life 
and Organisation still continue. 

Characteristics of the Open System of Human Evolution 

Together with the so-called "molar" or "organismic" as contrasted 
with the older molecular or analytical outlook, the principles of "hierarchical 
order" and "open" system have important consequences for the study of 
human evolution. The protein molecule, the cell, the tissue, the human 
individual with his body, mind, behaviour and values, the ecological 

1 Bertalanffy : Problems of Life, pp. 129, 145. 

*Needham: Time : The Refreshing River, pp. 243-253. 

8 Ibid : Matter, Form, Evolution and Us in Bramwell : This Changing World> p. 37. 


community, the family, the nation and, finally, mankind-as-a whole are all 
"open systems" at different dimensions, regulated largely by the laws of 
their own dimension and their own duration and organisation. A theory 
of "open system" requires new principles of behaviour, equilibrium and 
control in successive dimensions of organic adaptation. 

An "open system", physical or biological, spontaneously moves to- 
wards greater heterogeneity and complexity. Another fundamental charac- 
teristic of an open system is that the changes resulting from the relations 
within the system and the interchanges with the environment are not re- 
versible. The criteria of progressive evolution, organic and human, from 
this viewpoint are dual : first, greater range, complexity and efficiency of 
adjustment of the organism to its environment; and, second, greater pur- 
posive control of behaviour and control over, and independence of, 
environmental conditions. 

In the human species we measure both behaviour and evolution 
qualitatively. The dual criteria of progressive human evolution are quali- 
tative : first, the range, complexity and quality or dimension of satisfactions 
and values, intellectual, aesthetic and spiritual^ that supervene upon "survival 
values"; and, second, the control of mind, personality and behaviour and 
purposeful planning of values as means of better control of environmental 
resources in order to fulfil satisfactions and values of an ever-ascending 
order or dimension, eliciting ever higher potentialities of man. 

The Dimensions of 'Behaviour 

Behaviour is a many-dimensional interaction. There are orders or 
dimensions of purposefulness in the organism's adjustments. Adjustments 
to static and to changing conditions; adjustments through trial and error; 
adjustments through learning; and adjustments through symbolisation that 
accumulates and transmits goals, values and traditions the results of both 
learning and socialization and that is peculiar to man, comprise progressive 
dimensions of evolution. 

Goals and values do not constitute the monopoly of mankind, but 
by a sort of forward reference effectively forestall and guide animal adjust- 
ments as soon as the mechanisms of mind and control of behaviour have 
emerged. Kroeber observes : "Recognition of the functioning and capa- 
cities of an organic species is a sort of formulation of the values generally 
inherent in that species. At any rate it can be that even if biologists usually 
are not aware of the fact and might resent the imputation of any concern 
with values." 1 Herrick stresses that all biologic adaptations have a future 
reference and seek or achieve satisfactions that are values, whether or not 
these are recognised as such. He remarks, "There is a hierarchy of natural 
values parallel with the progressive enlargement of the action system of 

1 Values as a Subject of Natural Science Enquiry, Proctedings of tfo National Atadtmy 
of Sf tenet t 35, pp. 261-264. 


animals in the evolutionary series. We can recognise an evolution of 
value in phylogeny and a similar growth of value judgments in the deve- 
lopment of every child. Value as here defined is immanent in the organic 
realm as an objectively verifiable phenomenon." 1 Yet goals and values 
that are anticipated in the mechanisms of forward reference of adaptive 
adjustments, distinctive of the higher animals, play the leading role in human 

The Natural History of Values 

The adaptation of the biological organism, Homo sapiens , to his environ- 
ment is the sustenance and enhancement of life in terms of needs, satisfac- 
tions and values. It is values that tell him unequivocally what he requires 
for his health, efficiency, well-being and cooperative behaviour the whole- 
someness, sanity and orderliness of his living in relation to his environment, 
physical and social. Human adjustment is another name for the process 
of living in confoimity to a complex set of values that refine, enrich and 
elevate mind and society and acquire actual "survival value." 'Values take 
their due place among the other biological functions and capacities of man, 
and are directed towards both the environmental conditions and his inner 
dispositions, needs and satisfactions. 

Though many values are rooted in vital activities and processes and 
experienced at the instinctive and unconscious level, there are no biological 
values per se in human evolution. Human evolution endows the organism 
with the subjective capacities of creation, evaluation and transformation 
of values and freedom and responsibility to choose and fulfil them in every 
particular adjustment. Values have played a crucial role in the development 
of mind, society and culture, impairing, impoverishing and destroying or 
refining, integrating and uplifting mankind. There is a total advance of 
values as evolution proceeds, marking greater autonomy of the organism 
from the immediate context. Animal evolution as it has marched forward 
has produced more varied, more efficient and better organised consciousness, 
behaviour and goal and value-direction, achieving greater freedom and 
control of the organism over the environment. Human evolution carries 
forward to the highest level the same trends of variety, autonomy and 
better organisation of mind, goals and behaviour. It is directed and 
governed by an organised system of values, and is marked by psycho-social 
rather than by genetic or biological transformation. At the psycho-social 
dimension, evolution works through new patterns of values and achieves 
new types of mind, behaviour and personality, higher degrees of organisa- 
tion of society and culture. The latter are characterised by the dominance 
of convergence over divergence, of unity over autonomy and of transcen- 
dence over actuality. Human advance is a leap in transcending levels and 

1 The Evolution of Human Nature, pp. 135, 156-157. 



qualities of human relations, values and value-experience. The transcen- 
dent super-structure of values differentiates human from animal adaptation, 
and is the co-product of human mental evolution and discovery, accumula- 
tion, evaluation and transmission of human experiences, ever moving 
towards interchange with that which the universe offers. 

At first biologically and physiologically, and later on rationally defined 
and appraised, values in mankind rank themselves in a "natural" hierarchy 
according to their permanence, universality, transcendence and creative, 
multiplicative nature, and become directive agencies of the evolutionary 
process itself. These keep human evolution always on the stride towards 
something ever richer, stabler, more harmonious, more universal and 
more transcendent. 

Human adaptations and values are to be considered not as "closed 
systems", approximating towards static equilibrium, but as "open systems," 
constantly moving towards greater wholeness, orderliness and transcendence 
in dynamic interaction with the environment, physical and social. In an 
environment in which there is only one potentiality, values are dead, and 
adjustment and evolution come to a halt. The human social situation is 
one in which there are undefined and unlimited potentialities. Since value- 
creation and value-experience are associated with the capacity to adjust 
the actual and the potential, and the existential and the transcendent to one 
another, the variety, range and wealth of human values, like those of human 
potentialities, know no bounds. The discovery and experience of fresh 
values consists in reconciling not only facts and values, but also various 
dimensions and qualities of values with one another in the on-going social 
relations and processes. Human potentialities with associated satisfactions, 
meanings and values are continuously enlarging and transcending on every 

The Meaning of Human "Environmental Control 

Man's capacity for conceptualisation, symbolisation and learning, and 
his creative mental interchange with the external heritage of culture that 
garners and transmits values, traditions and experiences from generation 
to generation enable him to modify his nature, stretch his potentialities and 
acquire a degree of control over the environment that can never be achieved 
by the animal. The increasing variety, range and sureness of control of 
the environment differentiate human from animal evolution. Man's in- 
dependence of, and control over, the environment with associated develop- 
ment of individual versatility and uniqueness of adjustments within the 
species lift human evolution to an altogether new dimension. 

Yet man's manipulation of his physical and biological environment 
works within the limits of the ecological laws of correlation, balance and 
harmony of living communities within the region. There is a subtle, fine 
and intricate balance established between plant and animal communities (bi- 
ocoenoses) in every ecological area of the earth, between the herbivores and 


carnivores of different sizes and ways of living, in every parcel of meadow, 
forest or lake. Complex, multitudinous and ramifying threads of "the 
web of life" bind together the different parts of the living world, surrounding, 
interpenetrating and overreaching the lives of single species and organisms. 
Any far-reaching disturbances of the delicate system of ecological linkages 
in a certain region become detrimental to such fundamental economic 
pursuits of mankind as agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry. The 
notions of wholeness, solidarity or symbiosis as applied to the vast harmo- 
nious ecological communities have, indeed, great practical significance for 
the stability and continuity of human civilization. Just as wild nature is in 
a state of ecological rhythm and equilibrium, and shows reciprocal inter- 
dependence, self-regulation and adaptation to "biotic" interferences or 
pressures, so the external heritage even of a technological culture should 
maintain, and not recklessly disrupt, the ecological wholeness. A one- 
sided exploitation of the natural and biotic potentials of the land brings 
about ecological disaster. From another viewpoint, the cycles of epidemic 
diseases, which may be considered as ecological rhythms between human, 
insect and carrier populations, have their obvious impact on human hygiene 
and welfare. Not until we reach the unity of the whole of life on the planet 
that ecology demonstrates can man's environmental control be free from 
the risks involved in his constant pressures and interferences with the 
stream of life maintaining itself in dynamic equilibrium through the cycles 
of the bio-elements. 

With the human species evolution along with control over environment 
has reached a new stage. The natural selection of races and individuals 
through the slow mechanisms of adaptation and genetical stability and 
variation is supplemented and gradually outstripped by the quicker pro- 
cesses of individual acquisition of knowledge and tools, transformation of 
the environment and transmission of the external social heritage man's 
acquired environment of techniques, traditions, values and culture. 
Through the latter he achieves better and better adaptation, symbiosis and 
orderliness with the physical environment, and as he does so a new form 
of evolution emerges. 

The On-going, Expanding Stream of Life and Humanity 

Bio-psychologically constituted as he is, man can only advance if he 
lives and strives as a part of the environment, the group, the society, 
the culture, the unlimited social milieu which comprise the whole. 
Whitehead is one of the first among the philosophers to generalise the idea 
of the human environment as a field of relationships with other living 
individuals, each living his own life, directly felt in experience. From the 
biological discovery that the living body is not one entity but a "vast 
society of cells," he comes to the conclusion "that the primary non-human 
datum of human experience must be cellular activity, objectified without 


distinctness as to individual cells and instinctively taken as an 
index of conditions outside the bodily system, an index whose general 
reliability is due to evolutionary adaptation." This man 
apprehends sub-human reality and is causally influenced by it. "He cannot 
but be influenced by what he directly even though indistinctively intuits." 1 
Man grasps the environment and the society as one including himself in 
the whole. The patterned nexus such as the environment, the society and 
the ever-expanding cosmos as the society of societies derives its sole principle 
of unity from the bare fact of mutual immanence. 2 John Dewey has also 
stressed that "the social in its human sense, is the richest, fullest and most 
delicately subtle of any mode of actual experience the widest and the 
richest manifestation of the whole." He observes: "Associated or conjoint 
behaviour is a universal characteristic of all existences. Qualities of 
associated things are displayed only in association, since in interactions 
alone are potentialities released and actualised. The manifestation of 
potentialities varies with the manner and range of association." 3 

The social "transaction" according to him is constant, forward-oriented 
and ever expansive in its unfoldment of human participation, values and 
potentials. A similar emphasis of the dynamic, creative process of social 
interchange is illustrated by Royce's "Community of interpretation," 
Peirce's "Community of mental action" and Felix Adler's "Infinite society." 
Man always lives, matures and fuses himself in society, and Nature is a 
complex of societies functioning at different levels. He apprehends, speaks 
and behaves properly when he is linked dynamically and creatively with his 
fellowmen. The normality of his mental functions and development rests 
on his living in fellowship, on his social impulse, feeling and sentiment 
entering into the core of his motivations, symbols and values. Human 
nature is only possible because mankind is a society. It is this society of 
societies which prepares and educates man for his wholeness and tran- 
scendence in the brotherhood of the species, or in the ideal self. Man's 
mental inadequacy, unstability and insecurity are all rooted in his thwarted 
and imperfect wholeness and self-transcendence in his relationships with 
fellowmen in expanding circles of love, altruism and cooperation. The 
development of human values, the challenge of human culture, consists, 
to be sure, in man's perfection of fellowship with man, in his participation 
and transcendence in the general evolutionary stream of Life and Humanity- 
as-a whole of which he is a bubble, pool or vortex. Such wholeness or 
transcendence of human social living is based also on wider bio-ecological 
cooperation or symbiosis, maintaining the on-going and expanding stream 
of life in the continuous flow of matter and energy through different species 
of organisms that constitute the hierarchy of living systems. 

1 Charles Hartshorne in Whitehtad and the Modem World > pp. 36-37. 
*Whitehead: Adventures of Ideas > p. 260. 
* Social as a Category, The Monist, V, 38 : 2. 


The Global Environment and Evolution of Man 

All this implies that there is nothing fixed or definitive about human 
nature and environment that have vast further potentialities of advance 
which are yet to be reached. Such advance is connected less with the 
natural selection of man's genetical equipment (biological evolution), and 
more with his non-biological social heritage (psycho-social evolution) that 
is brought into ever greater harmony with his possibilities at the social 
or conscious level imbueing him with an ever stronger social impulse and 
feeling. Man consciously maintains and plans the biological continuity 
of his race and the social continuity of his traditions, values and culture 
in a manner which no other animal can. Alone among the amimals he 
achieves a global pattern of thinking, feeling and behaviour. Human 
evolutionary advance enlarging the horizons of organic evolution establishes 
a continuity of the global heritage of mankind. To this world- wide psycho- 
social environment man must adjust himself in order to live and thrive. 
He relates his own traditions, values and life experiences with those of 
mankind and accumulates and transmits them to his posterity. He links 
himself with feliowmen of his enlarged world-wide environment, irrespec- 
tive of their race, region and culture, and with the cosmos-as-a whole by 
feelings of identity and empathy. These widening social feelings, values 
and aspirations now belong to his long-range adaptedness, and comprise 
the trend along which his advance now proceeds leading to greater actuali- 
zation of his desirable potentials. This is his evolution in the "right" 
track. The enlargement and deepening of human social and cosmic feelings 
and values have now become of prime significance for his survival and 

The fundamental evolutionary process shows a grand progression of 
successive stages of development of the earth, life and consciousness in 
their totality. There are progressively the geological unity of the earth 
called the <c bary-sphere," its biological unity called the "bio-sphere," and 
its intellectual and spiritual unity represented by the common'global tradi- 
tions, values or culture which Chardin calls the "noo-sphere." 1 Evolution 
can be defined and evaluated in terms of its trends and possibilities rather 
than in terms of the origins. With the emergence of mind, values and 
culture the earth takes a new forward leap, and cosmic evolution enters a 
new phase. The transformation of the earth which has become the world- 
wide human environment must have to be interpreted now in terms of the 
progressive unification of the earth and cosmos by the self-transcending 
values, personality and culture of man governing and directing the consci- 
ousness of entire mankind. There is an irreversibility about the extension 
of the concepts and feelings of man and the solidarity of the race. Just 

1 Chardin: The Phenomenon of Man, pp. 180-184. 


as man cannot isolate himself from his group or community, biologically, 
socially and morally, without suffering personal disorganisation, atavism 
or regression, so the unity of mankind can no longer be defeated nor 
checkmated without a catastrophe. The fundamental principle of cosmic 
evolution makes mankind-as-a whole its necessary culmination. 

Human evolution, continuing and deepening biological evolution in 
another dimension, is an unceasing creation, not a static achievement, a con- 
tinuous triumph over all that is anti-social and anti-cosmic in human life, 
personality and culture. It finds its social and cosmic dispositions, feelings 
and value as it goes. Humanity has an "open" future in both individual 
and evolutionary advance in the direction of human and beyond-human 
social feeling. 

The scientific method as applied to the evolution of man and his 
history and values reveals, however, that human advance is not universal 
nor inevitable. Human evolution has to be consciously sought and directed 
by human values and culture, increasingly and more closely adjusted to the 
realities of man's social and cosmic destiny the adaptedness of perso- 
nality, values and culture to mankind-and-cosmos-as wholes. From the 
viewpoint of human possibilities, values and culture are all important 
factors of human behaviour through which it reaches a beyond-human, 
cosmic dimension. 

The Problem of Successive Dimensions and Wholes 

At each level or dimension of cosmic, organic and human social evolu- 
tion, there are problems of wholeness, of integration and organisation of 
relations, of dynamic "transaction," of parts and processes, of transcendence. 
We can neither reduce the biological to the physical-mechanistic nor the 
psycho-social to the biological order or dimension of principles and laws. 
The key-words in the conceptual frame-work and organisation of modern 
sciences are wholeness, not specificity of pattern and movement, unity 
not diversity, and "dimensionality," not "reductionism." 

Today we seek scientific explanation in terms of parts and wholes, 
lower and higher dimensions of any pattern, system and organisation. 
There is search for universal models, principles and laws which apply 
to successive wholes, systems and organisations at different levels or 
dimensions, for what is called "isomorphic" or structural uniformity or 
order manifest in processes and relations studied by the various sciences, 
often independently of one another. A "general theory" of human evolu- 
tion will synthesise the problems of wholeness and dimensions of organising 
relations resulting from the dynamic interchange of social processes and 
values emerging in the various social sciences. Instead of studying man 
and the society or culture and their interactions from various facets and 
dimensions separately, it studies social life, relations and values as a 
unitary whole, and attempts to clarify their natural coherence, organisation 


and dynamic interpenetration. It will be an integral, "formal" part of 
a new discipline which Bertalanffy calls General System Theory, concerned 
with the formulation and derivation of those principles which are valid for 
"systems" in general. 1 

Interpretation of Human "Transactions" in Terms of the Highest Wholes 

Recently several thinkers, such as Novikoff, Needham, Herrick, Came- 
ron and Feibleman have concerned themselves with the concept of integ- 
rated levels or dimensions in the various sciences. The "creative" feature 
of causality is recognised, and the perspectives of sciences are immensely 
widened when the lock-step of traditional causal sequence in which every 
event is clamped to the preceding and succeeding event with rigid unal- 
terability is broken. The living organism does not react identically to 
apparently identical stimuli. The act of response alters subsequent res- 
ponsiveness, while it is neither random nor lawless. Creativity, as Herrick 
points out, is exhibited in some measure by every mechanism. It is mani- 
fested at successive dimensions of integration throughout both inorganic 
and organic realms, and it culminates in human purposive behaviour, con- 
structive reasoning, valuation and transcendence. He observes : "The 
transition from one level to another as from lifeless to living and from 
unconscious to conscious action may appear to be abrupt and disconti- 
nuous, but underlying this appearance of saltatory change there is an un- 
broken series of causal connections." 2 A sort of super-science is now 
emerging dealing with the integrative dimensions and the uniformities, 
processes and laws found in the successive series of dimensions, of parts 
and wholes. Beyond the older hypotheses of mechanism and vitalism 
that represent contrasted facets of the explanation of organisms in terms 
of lower and higher dimensions respectively, we have gone to the recognition 
that the physical and biological dimensions are interdependent and inter- 
penetrate each other, and that any organisation belongs to its highest 
dimension in some peculiar mode and has to be explained finally on this. 
Northrop has pointed out that "there are different scientific methods for 
different stages of inquiry and the method which is scientific for one stage 
may be quite unscientific at a different stage. It is the problem that desig- 
nates the method, not the method which designates the problem" 3 . The 
cause and effect of physico-chemical reactions in the world of physics; 
the sensitivities and chain reflexes that direct the organism towards the 
source of stimulus in the world of biology; the goals, motivations 
and symbolic or learned behaviour in the world of mind; and the striving, 
realisation and transcendence of values in the world of personality and 

1 Bertalanffy : An Outline of General System Theory, British Journal for the Philosophy 
of Science, 1950, also Feibleman: Theory of Integrative Levels, Ibid, 1954. 

2 Herrick: The Evolution of Human Nature, p. in. 

3 The Logic of the Sciences and the Humanities. 


culture arc illustrations of characteristic patterns of behaviour at different 
dimensions. The complex systems of personality, values and culture call 
for interpretation at the highest dimension which man has reached in the 
evolutionary process. 

The Human Organism Function and Environment; Man Be- 
haviour and Society; Social Person Status and Group; and Personality 
Values and Cosmos are dealt with by the biological, psychological and 
cultural sciences serially arranged in a hierarchy of dimensionality . The theory 
of "transaction" or dynamic interchange between the three basic elements 
of biological and social reality is grounded in the epistemological presup- 
positions of Dewey and Bentley. The triangular perspective within which 
the fundamental aspects or facets of the social reality can be studied from 
within and in their reciprocal interdependence is also cognate to the Gestalt 
theory that like the former goes much beyond psychology and is related 
to phenomenology. In the dynamically organised social "field" we reach 
a universe of discourse in which the fusion of boundaries between person 
and world or cosmos is consciously or intuitively understood and acted 
upon. Man not only accepts his social universe, but projects himself 
beyond, and transcends it through his meanings, expectancies and values. 
If we agree with Cohen that the truth of a proposition holds only within 
its proper universe of discourse, the dual concepts of acceptance and pro- 
jection, self-involvement and self-transcendence are indispensable in the 
interpretation of social evolution. Shared sentiments, meanings and 
values as well as self-transcendence are involved in the social, which is 
something more than merely physical and biological. The collaborative 
or inter-disciplinary science of human evolution demands that the current 
specialities should be governed by explanation in terms of the highest 
whole and dimension of the organisation which man reaches in evolution. 
Although man as an organism adapts himself within certain biological 
limits to the environment, although his behaviour conforms to certain 
psychological principles of response to the objects of the environment and 
to fellowmen, and although as a social being his accrual of role and status 
takes place in group and institutional life, we must still consider the fact 
that his behaviour follows certain patterns or uniformities called values, 
norms and ideals common to members of the same environment, society 
and culture. Any "general" theory of human evolution must be concerned 
with the "open system" of Personality Values and Culture in their 
reciprocal interdependence. This represents the qualitatively highest 
dimension or the most efficient pattern of performance which the human 
animal achieves. 

Social Philosophy Grounded in Modern Biological Philosophy 

All the biological, psychological and cultural disciplines will have to 
come to terms with one another, and achieve a common focus at the level 


of personality, values and culture. Such concepts as symbolic and learned 
behaviour, conditioning, canalisation, goals, values and norms, their inter- 
nalisations as conscience and faith, and cultural premises, beliefs and impera- 
tives will gain in scope and clarity in the context of a "general" theory of 
human evolution. At the psycho-social stage of evolution, the unique 
personal qualities of human symbolism, values, morals and norms are as 
significant as the processes of cultural conditioning and canalisation that 
establish certain common patterns of behaviour in a specific social structure 
and culture. The interrelations of the distinctive qualities of the individual 
personality, the forward direction and transcendence of values and the in- 
timate but universal norms and imperatives of human culture must have to 
be clarified in the context of progressive social evolution. It is these pro- 
blems which define the method of any discipline dealing with man and his 
evolution, values and culture. The natural science method cannot aid 
us in understanding and interpreting these problems by forcing them into 
the level and framework of the lower, coarser and simpler physical and 
biological processes. 

It is from his supreme values and transcendent norms that the mecha- 
nisms and processes of human adaptation, behaviour, status and culture in 
the various stages of the historical process have to be explained. These 
patterns are common to men of a particular region, society and culture, and 
are not generic to the human species. Yet Homo sapiens is the place where 
the entire evolution of the beliefs, motivations and values of mankind 
illuminates itself. As the end-product of civilization, he becomes the 
guardian of transcendent or cosmic evolution. There are super-personal, 
super-cultural and supra-rational intrinsicalities and values that elude 
adequate analysis, but are possible instruments of progress in the universe 
at large. Modern vitalism and evolutionary naturalism are narrow and 
limited in their vision. As philosophies these bring out results that satisfy 
the emotional needs of the tiny parasites of this insignificant planet in the 
universe, but show, as Bertrand Russell aptly remarks, " a lack of a sense of 
proportion and logical relevance." 1 Man is always open to the universe, 
and strives after creating and maintaining ever greater wholes, ever more 
comprehensive and transcending values and value-experiences. His cos- 
mic intuition reveals the foundations of the cosmic and human Being which 
subsists in an endless, creative process of Becoming. 

The theoretical constructs of a mechanistic universe formulated in 
terms of matter and energy by Newton, Locke and Descartes in the iyth 
century nurtured atomism in classical psychology and social sciences and 
metaphysical individualism in the thought-pattern, and were a prelude to 
the massive developments of standardisation and technicalisation of modern 

1 What I Believe, p. 23. 


culture 1 . In the present age, we come increasingly to realise, as R.N. 
Anshen observes, that "the conception of wholeness, unity, organism is 
a higher and more concrete conception than that of matter and energy, and 
that science itself must ultimately pursue the aim of interpreting the physical 
world of matter and energy in terms of the biological conception of orga- 
nism." 2 
The Wholeness and Transcendence Tendencies in Nature and Life 

The vast universe is basically constituted of only three particles, proton, 
neutron and electron. But they do not move in isolation but conjointly and 
cooperatively. They pair and fuse, and form millions of atoms and mole- 
cules, composing stars and nebulas, gas, liquid and solid matter as well as 
living system, all moved by an integral, cooperative directiveness. The 
second law of thermo-dynamics shows how the universe is a fundamental 
unity not chaos, and exhibits orderly integration and direction. It is in 
the living system, and in particular the human social system that the exercise 
of a coordinated, cooperative, directed effort has attained the highest con- 
scious dimension. The universe comprises of millions of entities, patterns 
and systems that show unity emerging from diversity, and complexity 
emerging from simplicity of structure and function through the great 
cosmic law of integral directiveness. Each entity, pattern and complex 
arising out of a combination of the three basic particles into the atoms, 
of atoms into the molecules and of molecules into the protoplasms, shows 
the emergence of new qualities or properties distinct from those of the 
isolated components. It is the directiveness of cosmic evolution which 
brings forth new qualities and a new dimension of existence step by step. 
Each forward step has an element of surprise comprehensible only when 
looking back. 

Man who has grown with the cosmos illustrates the acme of cosmic, 
orderly directiveness through his sense of transcendent values that has 
now taken charge of cosmic evolution. To the directiveness that seems 
fundamental everywhere in the cosmos from the laws that govern the 
expansion and contraction of the galaxies to the principles of homeostasis 
and valuation, man gives the reality of conscious purpose. The expanding 
evolution of the cosmos with its successive patterns from the basic particles 
to the congeries of atoms and molecules that gather into inanimate and 
animate systems and organisations is now to be seen as part and whole, and 
as a progressive pattern of different orders, levels or dimensions. The 
relatively static pictures of the cosmos of the last decades are now dis- 
carded as inadequate and distorted. On the unity and order of the cos- 
mos-picture the new cosmography superposes breath-taking notions of 
immeasurable time and space, and also the possibility of existence of major 

1 Compare Hocking : The Coming World Civi 'libation , pp. 21-28. 

2 Preface to the volumes published in the World Perspective series. 


kingdoms of life in other inhabited planets dispersed throughout the cosmos. 
Man not only cultivates a new cosmic humility, but can conceive of a yet 
higher pattern and quality of life, mind and values, blossoming forth else- 
where due to favourable circumstances of cosmic radiation, planetary 
evenness of conditions or the much larger time afforded for organic evolu- 
tion. He can accordingly emulate and strive for much higher cosmic, 
transcendent truths and values, the potentialities of which are only faintly 
glimpsed in his peripheral, terrestrial habitat. Contemporary man's proper 
cosmic adaptation calls for the arousal of new hidden spiritual resources 
and capacities. Obviously the presence of superior organisms elsewhere 
in the cosmos sets before mankind on this planet a new transcendent, 
cosmic goal for itself. 

A Second Copernican Revolution in Human Thinking 

Human mind and values evolved by the mother-cosmos await higher 
consciousness and values, and yet higher consciousness and values from 
the cosmos. Everywhere the notions of dimensionality, directiveness, 
wholeness and transcendence dominate. According to Whitehead, "Science 
is taking on a new aspect which is neither purely physical nor purely biolo- 
gical. It is becoming the study of organisms. Biology is the study of the 
larger organism, whereas physics is the study of the smaller organisms." 1 
The scientific scheme is being recast and founded upon the ultimate concept 
of organism, which, he says, is "a unit of emergent value, a real fusion 
of the characters of eternal objects emerging for its own sake." Whyte 
postulates the operation of a "formative tendency" in Nature. Karl Heim 
considers that a "wholeness tendency" should have primacy in modern 
philosophy. A cognate "transcendence tendency" in Nature and Life 
may also be postulated focussing a fruitful interchange of biological and 
humanistic studies in modern thought. The new concepts of hierarchical 
order, wholeness, transcendence and organisation into ever higher and 
more complex integrations which characterise the modern scientific inter- 
pretation, and which have been most significantly demonstrated in the 
world of life, offer an enlarged, objective definition of the meaning, value 
and direction of evolution. The synoptic vision of the organic and spiritual 
wholeness and transcendence of man, and his central role in the evolutionary 
process, grounded in the synthesis of values and experiences of different 
dimensions dealt with by apparently separated branches of knowledge, 
may initiate a new dynamic reciprocity between scientific and philosophical 
disciplines. The outcome may be a second Copernican revolution in the 
history of civilization. 

1 Science and the Modern World, pp. 150-157. 



Extension of Field Analysis from Physics and Biology to the Social Sciences 

The concepts of "field" and ''transaction" are now regarded as basic 
in defining life, mind and society as a hierarchy of "open systems." All 
organisms interact or "transact" in their limited fields that are organisations 
of relations and activities, internal and external, defined as integral functional 
systems. The "field" analysis has now spread from Physics to Biology 
and from Physiology, Psychology and Psychiatry to all the Social Sciences. 
From the logical view-point the "field" can be defined when we can refer 
to certain mutually interacting objective factors that maintain an enduring 
total pattern articulated or structured as a functional whole. Accordingly, 
it is the "field" which indicates the factors and processes essential for the 
discovery of the laws governing the structure and function of the parti- 
cular organisation. In biological evolution the "field" refers to the in- 
teracting, organised system of Organism Function and Environment. 
The pattern or organisation of Life embraces the whole Organism Func- 
tion Environment relation; none of the factors involved can be defined 
or understood without reference to the others. 

The Constancy of the Field in Human Physiology 

The life-process, though focussed in the organism, extends beyond the 
body. LJ. Henderson has shown that the structure of life'is no mere 
question of the interdependence of all that lies within the body; it is the 
question of a balance, the interstimulation which goes on between the 
inner and outer forces. The "field" in organic evolution in general envi- 
sages a complete living, growing and functioning system that achieves 
basic constancy and integrity in its environment. As evolution steps 
forward, new patterns of stability and balance emerge adding new features 
and new directions of organisation. In mammalian evolution the "field" 
comprises Mammal Homeostasis Environment. In Human Physiology 
the "field" refers to the comprehensive scene of internal and external activi- 
ties that regulate the human body's complex adjustment under specific 
determining and limiting external conditions through all the stages of 

Homeostasis and Evolution 

Claude Bernard introduced into physiology the seminal principle of 
the "constancy of the inner environment." Bio-chemists and physio- 
logists of this generation have applied this principle in various ways to 


the rhythm of life-processes maintaining a relative stability and balance 
of the systems of the body. The maintenance of constancy through com- 
plex, co-operative internal functions and external activities is called by W.B. 
Cannon "homeostasis" which implies 'maintenance of stability.' 1 Organic 
evolution maintains, improves and expands the organism's internal adjust- 
ment and resistance to the powerful alternative forces operating both from 
within and without. The mechanisms and agencies of homeostatic adjust- 
ment that maintains the status quo of the organisms, especially their chemical 
composition, are largely self-sustaining and self-regulating, automatic. 
Cannon characterises this as "the wisdom of the body." Three basic 
biological ideas pervading every aspect of biological organisation are focus- 
sed by homeostasis. First, homeostatic mechanisms show the phenomenon 
and organisation of control with a tendency towards dynamic equilibrium 
and periodicity of action as fundamental for all patterns of life. W.S. 
Beck observes in this connection : "It is homeostasis the effort of the 
organismic machine to restore its equilibrium whenever disturbed that 
gives the organism an appearance of purposive behaviour, since these 
activities seem directed toward a future steady state. In contrast to the 
problems of heredity and reproduction, those in this area of biological 
science are the subject matter of such familiar fields as endocrinology, 
physiology, immunology, bio-chemistry, neuro-physiology, and so on. 
Each of these is concerned with the mechanisms of self-regulation at one or 
another level of organisation, and each still harbours great unsolved pro- 
blems for example, it is not known how hormones control metabolism 
or how antibody specificity is achieved. But the inescapable common 
denominator in all of these problems is the phenomenon of control"* Secondly, 
homeostasis shows that the organism in order to maintain its internal con- 
stancy and defend life against the second law of thermo-dynamics some- 
how retains "the power of choice over what goes and what stays." Thirdly, 
homeostasis increases and improves through internal and external vicis- 
situdes and the physiological responses to stress. Pick has shown that 
homeostatic mechanisms elaborate and change from fish to man. It is not 
only in the organic mechanisms of homeostasis themselves that the evolu- 
tionary elaboration occurs, but also in their potentialities for widened be- 
havioural relationships through ontogeny. Natural selection guides 
organic evolution in the direction of a more adequate homeostatic control 
in a given environment. Whatever biological agencies and processes 
contribute to the maintenance of dynamic homeostatic continuance and 
expansion are "functional" and "valuable", and reveal the potentialities of 
life at its different dimensions. The concept of values is derived from 
the basic homeostatic functions of self-maintenance, control and directive- 

1 The Wisdom of the Body. 

8 Modern Science and the Nature of Lift, p. 248, 


ness towards dynamic equilibrium that characterise all living systems. 
Only the function and organisation take on a new dimension in the up- 
ward surge in evolutionary progress. 

Values are Social Homeo static Controls 

From Cannon comes the valuable suggestion that in the complex 
aspects of human social evolution, institutions and cultures contribute to 
the achievement of homeostasis. 1 Human evolution in the psycho-social 
field or scene may be interpreted as the complex interchange or transaction 
between Man Homeostatic Controls (Values) and Culture. Values 
arise during the course of evolution of the hierarchy of "open systems" for 
the maintenance of dynamic constancy, growth and expansion. Values, 
from the biological viewpoint, may be defined as the generic laws of human 
evolution and control contributing to the dynamic homeostatic equilibrium, 
integrity and expansion of particular "fields" revealed by the various social 
sciences at different dimensions of adaptation. As the consequence of the 
evolutionary processes operating through millennia, the human mammal 
has acquired a thermostable state, a constancy in the acid-alkali relation 
and sugar concentration of the blood, establishing a delicate balance bet- 
ween internal conditions and disturbing or limiting factors of the environ- 
ment. The role of physiological homeostasis is that it releases the higher 
functions of the brain-mind for solving more complicated problems of 
internal and external adaptation and homeostasis. 2 With evolutionary 
progress man, dominant among the vertebrate mammals, has required and 
developed exceedingly complex internal and external agencies and processes 
of organic and extra-organic balance and control. The mechanisms of 
personality, values and culture, operative both internally and externally, 
establish his goals and directives towards the dynamic equilibrium that 
is so indispensable for his survival and advance. Such mechanisms and 
goals are, therefore, homeostatic, and achieve a reconciliation in the psycho- 
social dimension of balance and growth, integrity and change, security 
and adventure, control and freedom. These are the major aims of human 
evolution and conscious social selection, both in the individual and in 

The Dimensions of Homeostasis 

Homeostasis is, accordingly, of several orders or dimensions : physio- 
logical, psychological, institutional or moral and ideal or symbolic. It 
rises from lower to higher levels of adaptation, organisation and efficiency, 
a progressive series which culminates in human personality, values and 

1 The Evolution of Homeostasis, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society > 1954. 

8 The Body Physiologic and the Body Politic in Anshen (Ed.) : Science and Man. 
See also Emerson : Dynamic Homeostasis : a Unifying Principle in Organic, Socil and 
Ethical Evolution, The Scientifc Monthly, vol. 78, 1954; and Homeostasis and Comparison 
of Systems in Gr inker (Ed.) : Towards a Unified Theory of Human Behaviour. 


norms. Social homeostasis is not the chemistry of interrelations of internal 
operations, but is still homeostasis with a fundamental tendency towards 
dynamic balance, stability and integrity, regardless of the peculiar mode 
and quality it has acquired at the psycho-social level of evolution. Physio- 
logical homeostasis today means much more than the relative stability 
of separate features such as temperature or contents of water, sugar, 
salts and proteins in the body. Homeostatic effects are "web effects" 
with many "feed-backs", and imply the maintenance of the relative cons- 
tancy of interrelations and the structural wholeness of the living, growing 
organism as a balanced individual system. 

Psychological homeostasis comprises several levels. First, there are 
the integration and coordination of the senses so that these work in har- 
mony for the production of a relatively stable and compact self-awareness 
dependent on the body-mind's interrelations with the environment. One 
sense may become amplified to offset the disability or loss of another. 
Second", there are the integration and control of the functions of thinking, 
feeling and volition, so that there evolves a stable, consistent and integrated 
behaviour pattern in harmony with the environment. Man's motivations 
and behaviour are consciously or unconsciously directed to the maintenance 
of an inner stability and balance free from the storms and stresses of 
impulse and emotion, just as physiological homeostasis implies the relative 
constancy of the body, free from the unpredictable changes of the external 
world. The integration of impulse and reason, lower and higher desires 
and values, is homeostatic. Freud has developed the notion of "constancy" 
of organismic and mental states established through drive gratification and 
of stress and frustration in its absence. Thirdly, there are the integration, 
control and maintenance of one consistent and constant self-hood or 
personality. Guthrie maintains that human action occurs only when there 
is a threat to the inner stability of personality. 1 Gardner Murphy delineates 
the picture of personality as involving a stable equilibrium in which there 
are organised systems of behaviour with certain definite limits of variability, 
perceptual constancies and the anxiety-temptation balance. 2 Human per- 
sonality is a stable, coherent system that does not permit excessive change 
of parts without destroying the value of the whole. On a profound 
disturbance of balance the whole person may be organised in a different 
way with clusters of interdependent traits achieving a new unity. The orga- 
nisation of personality with its hierarchy of balances and constancies of 
mental and behavioural processes of graded degrees of complexity is homeos- 
tatic. As a matter of fact personality may be considered as standing at the 
apex of the holistic and homeostatic Mammal Homeostasis Environment 

1 The Psychology of Human Conflict. 
* Personality, p. 637. 


and Man Behaviour Situation system. 1 

Social or institutional homeostasis is illustrated by the dynamic equili- 
brium and periodicity of operation of forces in the vast ramifying cultural 
network of production and distribution of goods and services that comprises 
the internal environment of the body politic. Classical economists stressed 
"natural" Economic Harmonies (Bastiat), and analysed the equilibrium of 
the forces of demand and supply in the market that establish static equili- 
brium in the body economic. Modern economists now have replaced the 
older notion of static equilibrium by that of dynamic equilibrium, defined 
in terms of changing patterns of propensities to consume and save, capital 
accumulation and investment, costs and satisfactions. The analysis of the 
total behaviour of organised economy in terms of moving rather than 
stationary equilibrium in dynamic economics closely resembles that of 
bio-chemistry and physiology. The dominant concepts in modern eco- 
nomics, as of bio-chemistry and physiology, are those of dynamic stability 
and balance of the organisation achieved through processes of self-main- 
tenance, self-regulation and self-restoration. 

No body politic can survive that cannot establish or maintain the 
stability of its internal environment f based on a proper coordination of 
production, distribution and consumption and functional integration of 
various groups, institutions and individual roles. Only a stable status- 
power-prestige scheme, a proper ratio of awards and functions, and an 
efficacious system of social control, internal and external, can maintain the 
on-going circulating stream of material and immaterial goods and services 
which provide the conditions of social living. 

Criteria of tlomeostatic "Equilibrium in Society 

Homeostasis within the body politic may be physical or symbolic. 
It may be a mechanism of discipline, repression and control or of expression, 
stimulation and evocation. Not only do social relations, groups and insti- 
tutions, like human tissue systems, maintain a homeostatic balance and 
swing back to a poised normality after upset or tension, but they also under- 
go systematic progressive change. There is an opposition of forces and 
functions which is called Dialectic in the social process between inhibition 
and expression, freedom and determinism, status and mobility through 
which homeostatic integrity and harmony are constantly upset and con- 
stantly restored. Through the dialectical march of social opposites and 
modes, society achieves a new pattern of equilibrium. As in organic evolu- 
tion, so in psycho-social evolution, mutations or changes occur on a base 
of extreme stability and integrity within the organisation. Different sectors 
and dimensions of social life accordingly achieve optimum homeostatic 
conditions and interrelations through a balancing of opposed functions. 

1 See Teitelbaum: Homoestasis and Personality, AM. A, Archives of Neurology and 
Psychiatry, 1956. 


These may be defined by the criteria of equality of income (economic life), 
civil equality (political life), justice (legal relations), altruism (moral life) 
and self-transcendence (religious life). A fully integrated and balanced 
social life depends upon the smooth working of manys ocial homeostatic 
control mechanisms not only those of law, government and public opinion, 
but also of other means of social control, such as education, religion, litera- 
ture and the fine arts, that play even more significant roles in contributing 
towards the wholeness and balance of life of the individual and the integra- 
tion and harmony of society. All these have ethical meanings. Dynamic 
homeostasis within society is an ethical process that develops from ecolo- 
gical and economic equilibrium to social integration, and thence to spiritual 
at-homeness. It implies an advance in the ethical principle in individual 
homeostasis from prudence through loyalty to reverence, and in social 
homeostasis from reciprocity through justice and equity to love and sharing. 
Social or institutional homeostasis is the prime requisite for the promotion 
of the ideal or symbolic homeostasis, which contemplatives define as spiritual 
at-homcncss with the universe. From dimension to dimension of evolu- 
tion, the processes of life, mind and society achieve the dynamic homeostatic 
constancy and expansion of the environment. Cosmic mind and values 
realise the most comprehensive wholeness and the most extensive homeo- 
stasis that personalities and cultures can build up through symbolic homeo- 
static systems. 

Howeostatic Norms at Different Leve/s of the Social 'Environment 

Values, then, are oriented and scaled in terms of the homeostatic 
conditions and controls of society at different levels, dealt with by the 
various social sciences. The human body has developed mechanisms of 
great variety and specificity that are set in motion in a chain, and keep it 
on an even course in spite of conditions which might have been deeply 
disturbing. Such complementary adaptive interactions are true of the 
homeostasis of blood sugar, oxygen supply, acid-base reactions and tempe- 
rature. In the first place, one of the most striking features of the bodily 
structure and chemical composition is extreme natural instability. Secondly, 
the environmental stresses and strains are continuous. Only by the main- 
tenance of constancy of the internal environment is survival possible. 
Cannon observes : "Every change in the outer world and every considerable 
move in relation to the outer world must be attended by rectifying processes 
in the inner world of the organism." The body has established a special 
portion of the nervous organisation with extremely sensitive indicators 
promptly bringing into operation the proper regulating and correcting 
agencies. Accordingly, the oscillations on either side of a homeostatic norm 
are slight. In the case of attack by invisible enemies, such as bacteria 
and viruses, or by visible enemies, such as fellowmen and animals, there 
are internal adjustments within the body appropriate for its combat and 



victory. As Cannon says, "the body is unified, integrated, for a single 
purpose survival." Not only survival but also efficiency are the conse- 
quences of the preservation oft he homeostatic norms. In social homeo- 
stasis values and norms are similarly established and fostered at different 
dimensions, for security, efficiency and balance of the body politic, and 
of its various sub-systems. The homeostatic norms of the social organisa- 
tion orient themselves in a "natural" scale, order or hierarchy generic, 
"pan-human" value coordinations that underlie fthe stability, balance and 
orderliness of different societies and cultures in different stages of evolution. 
This is shown in the following table : 

Biological and Social 

Sciences at Different 


Homeostatic Balancing of 
Opposed Functions 

Homeostatic Norms 

1. Physiology 

2. Human Ecology 

3. Psychology 

4. Economics 

5 . Sociology 

6. Political Science 

7. Jurisprudence 

8. Social Work 

9. Ethics 

10. Religion 

Uniformity of Internal States 
v. Variation under Stress. 

Exploitation v. Conservation of 

Drive v. Drive reduction, Inhibition 
v. Facilitation, Conscious v. 

Costs v. Satisfactions. 
Status v. Mobility 
Freedom v. Submission 
Civil rights v. Order 
Economy v. Security 

Goodness v. Evil, Impulse r. Con- 
science, Egoism v. Altruism, 
Freedom v. Determinism. 

Self-acceptance v. Self-transcendence 


Survival and Continuity 
of Society. 

Integration of Behaviour 
and Personality. 

Equality of Income. 






Spiritual At-homeness. 

The fields of life rise to greater complexity and higher dimensions, 
including not simply man but the society, culture and mankind-as-a whole. 
Man adds to his internal environment his external, non-biological homeo- 
static environment of his society and culture. Both insect and human 
societies show a perfection of division of labour, specialisation of skills and 
aptitudes, integration and coordination of social functions and social homeo- 
stasis. In the former these rest on the genetic evolution of insect species 
and polymorphism. In the latter it depends upon the psycho-social 
evolution of human communities. Man's external homeostatic heritage 
is transmitted from generation to generation, displaces the genetic structure 
as the sieve of selection and survival, and guides behaviour, growth and 
evolution. This involves a purposeful and qualitatively distinct pattern 
of homeostatic living adopted by man at the level of psycho-social evolu- 


tion. Groups, societies and cultures develop ever more integrated values, 

"wholes" or homeostatic systems of organised relations, behaviour and 

values, in and with reference to which individual goals, purposes and 

obligations arise and are integrated and ordered in a system of "natural" 


The Optimum delation between Control and Freedom 

The social mechanisms of the imposition of the "requiredness" of 
homeostatic" obligations and norms are represented by the regulation of 
habits and patterns of behaviour through the procedures of canalisation 
and conditioned responses. In the body politic this closely corresponds 
to the functions of the brain, the homeostasis-making organ par excellence, 
with its highly developed and intricate frontal association areas and ramify- 
ing integrative nervous mechanisms, coordinating and regulating the auto- 
nomous homeostatic mechanisms. Claude Bernard's and Cannon's ideas 
on homeostasis have been the basis of construction of a bio-physical design 
or model of the human brain in the hands of Ashby and other physiological 
psychologists. 1 The human brain expresses and communicates in symbolic 
equation both immediate as well as distant and forward-oriented homeo- 
static controls for both internal and external consistencies and balances. 
Human culture does exactly the same through more complicated symbolic 
oppositions that raise homeostasis to ever higher levels. 

As in the body physiologic, so in the body politic, the principle of 
homeostasis achieves an optimum relation between control and freedom. 
As Cannon remarks, to the degree that homeostatic control was perfected 
in the myriads of millennia during which vertebrates evolved, man in his 
complex external environment has attained freedom of action. 

Physiological Homeostasis as Indicating the Trend of Human Evolution 

Physiological homeostasis indicates the trend of the future evolution 
of man. First, the physiological principles of preference of security to 
economy, and of stability to high tempo demand cultural recognition. 
Civilization has its myriad programmes of defence against enemies including 
insects and microbes, against unemployment, poverty, and disablement due 
to disease and physical handicap, and against the inevitable accidents and 
misfortunes of life. But no civilization has been able to reduce or regulate 
the prevalent excessive tempo of life and wastefulness of energy. Societies 
must also discover mechanisms of reducing and redistributing surpluses among 
the have-not individuals and peoples just as the body discards excess of 
water, salt or sugar, before the approach of derangement of a stable state. 
Many societies do not also possess wide margins of safety permitting un- 
usual demands and crises found throughout the organism. What human 
communities have developed such mechanisms of security such as storing 

1 Ashby : De sign for a Brain. 


fat against emergencies of starvation, as are discernible among fat-tailed 
sheep and camels, and among the Bushmen and Hottentots with their steato- 
phagia-devices by which fat may be garnered without interfering with heat- 
loss or locomotion? Secondly, the body physiologic establishes a most 
subtle and harmonious balance between homeostatic control and freedom. 
The integrative tissues of the human brain with its intricate thalamo-cor- 
tical connections are responsible for the working of the mechanisms of 
reflex or instinctive and reasoned behaviour, of excitement and inhibition, 
satisfaction and control in the total behaviour pattern. The major ills of 
human social organisation are, on the other hand, due to the disbalances 
and maladjustments between security and economy, freedom and control, 
authority and submission and civil rights and order, causing profound dis- 
harmony of interpersonal relationships and the warping and malformation 
of personality. Both the human body and insect community exhibit opti- 
mum homeostasis and harmony between initiative and subservience; the 
former, at the level of bodily organs and functions and the latter at the level 
of social organisation. Homeostasis in both cases is genetically deter- 

Because of the chronic instability of society due to the supersession 
of cultural by genetically determined mechanisms, some writers are in- 
clined to reject the concept and trend of social homeostasis. Jules Henry, 
for instance, considers that the cogent theory of human evolution should 
be rooted in the hypothesis of social instability lather than stability. Man's 
physiological adjustments show constant changes; and biological selection 
always takes place, according to him, in terms of the changing stresses 
produced, by the perpetual instability of human social systems. 1 This is, 
however, a sociological exaggeration. The replacement of gcnetical by 
culturally determined mechanisms in social evolution, no doubt, has led to 
the multiplication of unwholesome individual mutations and abnormalities 
leading to chronic maladjustment and instability of human societies. These 
are the biological prices man has to pay for the development of his mind 
But neither mental nor social evolution can advance without the correction, 
or elimination of pernicious idiosyncrasies, aberrations and diseases. 
Physical illnesses and inefficiencies, neuroses and psychoses as well as 
different forms of personal and social inadequacy and deviation comprise 
serious biological drags on human evolution. The restorative and recti- 
fying processes for both the inner world of man and the outer social en- 
vironment, are, of course, psychological and cultural rather than biological 
and genetic. Man's organic system has evolved largely in terms of stability 
of the internal and external environment. His mental and social evolution 
has also been achieved on the basis of certain stability and orderliness. 
The body politic is sustained by a regulated tempo and rhythm of activity, 

1 Homeostasis, Evolution and Culture, The Scientific Monthly \ Vol. 81, 1955. 


social inertia and tradition maintaining through various mechanisms of 
social control a relatively constant homeostatic pattern of living and be- 
haviour. These demarcate cultural and moral boundaries of persons and 
groups, and resist sudden and excessive alterations of routine, stability 
and balance, both personal and social. 

Modern Diseases Rooted in Physiological Maladaptation 

Many "civilized" ailments, far less frequent in the past, such as rheuma- 
tic heart, asthma, ulcer of the gastro-intestinal tract, hyper-tension, diabetes 
and possibly tuberculosis are "psycho-somatic" diseases springing from 
physiological muladaptation the products of social stresses on the hurmn 
organism. These are met with in advanced industrial communities rather 
than in the pre-industrial world. The heavy incidence of neurosis and 
psychosis in modern civilized communities is also a grave and wide-spread 
symptom of failure in biological and mental adaptation. This constitutes 
today a serious threat to man's evolutionary advance. 

Biological, mental and cultural progress and advance of homeostasis 
go together. In fact, the principle of homeostasis provides an essential 
link between biological, social and mental evolution. Machine-tending, 
monotony and speed are too new in man's world. His physiological and 
mental system has not been adequately adapted to the mechanical rhythm 
and high tempo of modern industrial and technological civilization. In 
many ways the mechanised urban-industrial environment of modern man 
is alien to him, and he remains a biological misfit. The rigid mechanical 
rhythm cannot supersede with impunity the physiological rhythm of life 
and growth. The tempo of life, work and movement cannot be accelerated 
indefinitely without injury to man, his contacts, relations and values. 1 The 
speed of modern machines, high physical and social mobility and quick 
tempo of physical and mental adjustment endanger man's survival by 
making sudden, abnormal demands on his physiological system as well as 
on the organic relationships and intimacies of the primary groups and 
the rhythms of the social routine that moulded and shaped his mental deve- 
lopment for successive generations prior to the industrial age. There is 
not only a profound lack of homeostatic balance and wholeness that is 
incompatible with the conditions of man's renewal, stability and advance, but 
there is also a continuous increase in his complexes, neuroses, depressions 
and mental and spiritual anxieties for which the individual can hardly be 
held responsible. The rapid rise of psychoanalysis, psychiatry, psycho- 
somatic medicine, neurology and neuro-pharmocology since the beginning of 
this century, amply testifies to the psycho-biological imbalances and impair- 
ments of the industrial and technological age. The German physician 
Kart Heenrich Bauer, analysing the causes of death, ' observes that "at the 

1 See my SocialF^ohgy, pp. 238-241 


head of the list are diseases of the heart and circulatory system. Fully 
four-fifths of these cases are over 60 years of age. The maximum lies 
between 75 and 80 years of age. In many of these cases, death from strokes, 
coronary thrombosis or high blood pressure is merely a "modern" variation 
of death through failure of the circulatory system due to old age." In the 
lower age groups the situation is completely different. Among young 
people between 1 5 and 20 accident accounts for more deaths than all other 
causes together, and among males between the ages of i and 45 violent 
death heads the list. 1 Technological civilization as it makes a tour round 
the world apparently offers human sacrifice at the altar of the unrelenting, 
cybernetic idol. To decrease the speed of the machine system and industrial 
organisation, and to subordinate the automatism of the machine to the 
human elements are insistent evolutionary problems of social homeostasis 
for the mechanised HOMO instabilis of the ioth century. An optimal re- 
lation between the rhythm of life and the rhythm of machine must be estab- 
lished for man's safety and stability. Man's homeostatic balance and whole- 
ness are upset by monotony and repetition of work and is established by 
rhythmic oscillation as of rest and poise, inhibition and expression, silence 
and activity. Even small variations in rhythm may prove helpful for the 
full functioning of the human organism as the presence of tracer elements 
in the diet. 2 

The Biological Continuity of Homeostasis 

Psycho-social evolution represents a level of homeostasis in which, 
first, symbolic homeostasis as well as symbolic goals, purposes and values 
and norms are most significant; secondly, the symbolic constancy and har- 
mony between the internal and the physical environment of man, and bet- 
ween man and the physical environment via society and culture are perfected 
through the "natural" hierarchy of homeostatic controls and values; and, 
thirdly, man as well as his homeostases or values and environment brook 
no physical limits or boundaries of space and time. Art and religion 
achieve the most profound subtle and unrestricted homeostasis of self and 
the organism and the infinitudes of the universe. It is not man's biological 
self nor his socio-cultural self but his ideal or transcendent self which is 
unique for his maturation and evolution. The growing and unlimited 
homeostasis in the context of the enlarged, cosmic environment which he 
achieves is basic for his life and growth. 

Animal evolution, characterised as it is by a dynamic interchange bet- 
ween the organism and environment, shows an increasing degree of homeo- 
stasis and purposefulness. Sinnott aptly observes: "Biological organisation 
(concerned with organic development and physiological activity) and 

1 Progress in the Natural Sciences and Technology, as Seen through the Eyes of a 
Physician, Unirersitas, 1959, No. i 

9 See Mumford : The Conduct of Life. 


psychical activity concerned with behaviour and thus leading to mind 
are fundamentally the same thing. To talk about mind in a bean plant is 
more defensible than to place an arbitrary point on the evolutionary scale 
when mind in some mysterious manner made its appearance." 1 Mind, 
purpose and values are continuous throughout the evolutionary scale. 
Goals, purposes and values are special aspects of self-maintaining and self- 
regulating homeostatic functions and laws. Homeostasis is the attain- 
ment of the major instincts, goals and values of animal and man, indispens- 
able for the maintenance of stability, integrity and balance, both internal 
and external. 

The biological continuity of homeostasis, purpose and value is now 
stressed by modern biologists like Cannon and Emerson, neurologists 
like Herrick and Ashby, and psychologists like Gardner Murphy. 2 The 
dim beginnings of homeostatic directiveness, purposefulness and value- 
seeking are discernible in the animal kingdom. E.S. Russell postulates 
that organic evolution cannot be defined without the construct of "directive- 
ness". 3 H.G. Ager has recently observed that purposeful behaviour in man 
is a development of a property of all living organisms as fundamental to 
them as assimilation and growth. The successive dimensions of behavioural 
adjustment sho\v degrees of purposefulness and goal-fulfilment that merge 
into one another. Modern behaviour studies, indeed, now emphasise that 
some of the fundamental thought processes of animals resemble man's 
more closely than the naturalists and psychologists formerly thought. In 
animal it is not easy to distinguish between directiveness and true purposive- 
ness. Sinnott remarks : "Conscious purposes grade off below into purposes 
of which we are unconscious. What gives consciousness its distinction 
at all levels may be simply that it is associated with the process of self- 
regulation towards an end and grows out of it. The essential fact about 
mind, however, seems not to be consciousness but rather the basic pur- 
posiveness that even the simplest sort of organic activity displays." 4 Many 
animals show a short-time purposiveness, a foresight of one or two moves 
ahead. Now all purposeful behaviour, as Dewey has shown, implies an 
integration of momentary acts and experiences with earlier and later acts 
into a whole or continuum. 

The Unlimited Symbolic Homeostasis 

The evolution of the pattern of behaviour reveals an increasing homeo- 
static mutuality and organisation of experiences or values of individuals 
and communities into "wholes" or systems. Such "wholes" or systems 

1 Cell and Psyche : The Biology of Purpose, pp. 44-50. 

2 See also Kurtz : Human Nature, Homeostasis and Values, Philosophy and Pbeno- 
menologlcal Research, vol. XVII, 1956-57. 

8 The Directiveness of Organic Activities. 
4 Life and Mind, pp. 19-20. 


of organised relations and behaviour, in and with reference to which goals, 
purposes and values emerge, have to be differentiated in the scale of organic 
evolution. Unlike the animal, man has memory, imagination, judgement 
and volition. He experiences values and fulfilments, aspirations and pos- 
sibilities that no animal can. 

Conscious, purposive, forward-oriented behaviour and valuation go 
together in man as contrasted with animal. Both rest on cognition and the 
use of symbols or language and learning at the human psychological level. 
The lower animals, governed by a set of stereotyped instincts, adapt them- 
selves to the environment through the selection and rejection of stimuli 
by trial and error. No sign nor symbol can aid them in this process. First, 
the environmental stimuli to which they respond are largely restricted to 
touch, sound, odour, vision, temperature and atmospheric pressure. The 
organic responses are also largely random, unconscious and conditioned. 
In the higher and brainy animals, such as mammals and birds, such selection 
or rejection is aided by signs systematised and integrated into gestures and 
cries. The latter can and does indicate to the animal in some measure the 
nature of a stimulus even though it remains outside the ambit of its sensory 
manipulation or control. Thus it stands for a distant forward-oriented 
goal. In man, due to the remarkable development of individual intelligence, 
memory and imagination, the elaboration of learning and the accumula- 
tion and transmission of the social heritage of symbols, language and tradi- 
tions, the goals are transformed into meanings, purposes and values. These 
are stored, communicated and transmitted and introduce both a new kind 
of organic freedom and environmental control a new dimension of evolu- 
tion governed by the communication system or cognition by the use of 
symbols and directed by values. Conscious purpose, value and striving 
change the entire pattern of human behaviour and evolution. The adap- 
tation and behaviour of man transcend the existential goals and situations. 
He strives after inaccessible values, and thereby measures and matures his 
capacities and possibilities indefinitely. If he has unrealised possibilities 
he suffers from a chronic tension and unrest or even becomes aggressive 
and destructive. Not merely does he judge his own capacities and poten- 
tialities, but he also evaluates the environment, actual and potential. He 
even conceives the environment or the world at large as superior to what 
actually exists and is given for him, and designs and reshapes it according 
to his purpose. At the level of psycho-social evolution, the dynamic homeo- 
stasis between man and the environment via society and culture keeps his 
goals, purposes and values ever-changing. Man opens himself to the 
society and the universe more and more. His homeostasis ever extends 
and becomes cosmic in its scope and unlimited in its subtlety and delicacy 
of operation, ever establishing a new dynamic wholeness, stability and 
balance in the inner and outer worlds. 



The Interchange between Man, Occupation and Region 

Man is a creature and agent in different dimensions of human adapta- 
tion and evolution. Such dimensions comprise a series of environments 
that may be demarcated as follows : 

(a) The ecological environment of external nature, both inanimate and 

() The internal biological environment of the human mammal; 

(f) The social environment, both external and internal, of the human 
person; and 

(d) The ideal or metaphysical environment of man as part of the 
cosmos and reality. 

Each of these environments, bio-ecological, social and ideal, conditions 
human evolution but with different degrees of control. In the case of the 
human species the dimensions are not mutually exclusive but impinge upon 
one another. First, human evolution miy be regarded as a functional 
process or "transaction/' in the sense of Dewey, between Man, Behaviour 
and Environment. This triangle corresponds to the Geddes-Thomson 
coordinates in biology, Organism, Function and Environment, or Folk, 
Work and Place. The triangle is of course an abstract and selective rela- 
tionship derived from mathematics. It is neither concrete nor substantial. 1 
On the other hand, the conceptual frame-work of the triangle is appropriate 
for the understanding and interpretation of the complex functional processes 
in terms of the three-fold coordinates in mathematics. 

Secondly, human evolution rises from dimension to dimension. Man 
has to be treated ecologically, biologically, socially and ideally, and yet 
in the integralness of his total adaptation, experience and values. Each 
realm of human adjustment determines his behaviour and evolution with 
varying degrees of coerciveness, and gives rise to sets of values and standards 
of moral behaviour that are clearly discernible and definable in their suc- 
cessive levels or dimensions. Such values and patterns of conduct coalesce 
or stand apart, are harmonised or come into conflict with one another, 
giving rise to many kinds of crisis in human social evolution. An exclu- 
sive natural history approach resting on ecology and biology is obviously 
inappropriate for the study of human evolution. The human organism 
and the environment both assume new characterisitics regions, statuses, 

L Vide Floyd Allport, Institutional Behaviour ,,$. 13. 


values, symbols and culture in the progressive dimensions of social 
adjustment characterised by symbolic, meaningful, purposive behaviour. 
Homo symbolicus is different from all other animals. His evolution and 
progress are guided not by trial and error but by his meanings, values and 
symbols that reshape his environment. Consequently we should develop 
a multi-dimensional methodology for the study of human evolution in 
which such disciplines as ecology, biology, anthropology, ethics, sociology 
and history should cooperate for the analysis of the many dimensions of 
man's evolution and of his behaviour and values. These are emergent 
and purposeful; their patterns direct the course of human adaptation and 
development as they manifest wider and richer wholes of communication 
and participation. 

The above theory of dimensions somewhat resembles, but is not iden- 
tical with,Nicolai Hartmann's conception of four layers which operate with- 
in man: the biological-somatic, the psychic, the subjectively mental and the 
objectively mental. Similarly A.L. Kroeber names four levels : body, 
mind, society and culture, and observes : "The laws of the lower level 
constitute the framework within which the phenomena of the higher level 
develop. But they do not per se produce these phenomena." The cate- 
gories of the "objective mind" of Hartmann and "culture" of Kroeber 
comprise factors and phenomena that are super-organic and super-individual. 
In Germany it is Hegel's concept of the "objective mind" that introduced 
a new content of reality, that of existence on the super-individual, historical 
level. It is unfortunate that the Hegelian notion of the levels of reality 
hardly touched the methodology of the social sciences in the Anglo-Ameri- 
can world which nurtured and thrived on dichotomies between the physical 
and the organic, and the organic and the super-organic. 

Man's basic ecological environment subjects him to the impact of 
temperature, rainfall, altitude and the web of his ecological inter-relation- 
ships with animal and insect communities in the various life-zones of human 
and animal distribution. Nineteenth century social science established a 
false dichotomy of Man and Nature. From Le Play and Patrick Geddes 
has come the valuable insight that the Organism, Function and Environment 1 
and Man, Occupation and Region 2 cannot be treated separately. White- 
head has remarked : "It is a false dichotomy to think of nature and man. 
Mankind is that factor in nature which exhibits in its most intense form the 
plasticity of nature." It is better to speak of a triadic relationship between 
man, nature and behaviour. For the give-and-take between man, nature 
and human needs, skill and achievement is on-going and ceaseless, now in 
favour of man, now against him. The mutuality of adaptations between 
ecological environment, human skill and material culture is endless and 

1 Geddes and Thomson, Life : Outlines of Biology, 
8 Mukerjee, Regional Sociology. 


shifting, giving us the picture of the total ecological situation as a dynamic 
Gestalt. Man's region is not the mere stimulus of human ecological res- 
ponses; it is saturated with human traditions and values, suffused with 
meanings, myths and symbols. These latter undergo transformation al- 
though the region may be the same. Each such transformation or reshap- 
ing of the region puts fresh demands upon man in his role as the ecologic 
dominant, the economic user, the moral agent and aesthetic participant. 
Thus he himself also changes in his modes of utilization or value-seeking 
and achievement, in his dispositions, capacities and scales of values. 

The Permanence of Ecological Values 

In the course of millions of years of man's evolutionary development 
both in the pre-mammalian and mammalian forms, he has developed 
peculiar physical and mental characteristics enabling him to adjust himself 
successfully to different ecological conditions, varying from arctic cold to tro- 
pical heat and from high mountain to sea-level as well as a general capacity for 
acclimatisation and colonisation far beyond the limits of his original habitat. 

As man's ancestor came down from the trees to the terra firma, used 
tools and weapons and became a hunter, striking morphological changes 
occurred. The most significant of these were the enlargement of the brain 
case and the widening of female pelvis, subsidiary to the former. The 
discovery of fire and cooking and of scrapers, knives and other implements 
used for the preparation of animal flesh for human food also led to the 
reduction of the size of the jaw and the prominence of the chin, favouring 
increased cranial cavity. The discovery of clothing similarly resulted in 
hairlessness with its advantages of cleanliness and relative freedom from 
parasitic diseases and of the supersession of grooming by reciprocal sex 
exploration and play with improved opportunities for sexual display and 
selection. Sexual selection favoured the human male with bigger and 
stronger physique and greater intelligence and courage, and the human 
female with wider pelvis and greater tenderness and gentleness of disposition. 
Man's competitive and combative method of obtaining his partner stimu- 
lated his large size and aggressiveness. Aggressiveness now enters into 
the sexuality of both the human male and female. The human size also 
became large in order that man could defend himself against his predaceous 
enemies, hunt or catch other animals which provided his food, and subdue 
other males and maintain his dominant status. Even before the evolution 
of the larger and more complex brain of Homo sapiens, the lesser brained 
Sinanthropus and Pithecanthropus achieved his body mass. In the Old 
Stone Age the pre-man lived in the steppe and tundra by hunting; in the 
Middle Stone Age he lived in the forest by hunting, food -gathering and 
fishing; while in the New Stone Age he became a herdsman and dairy- 
man. The steppe, tundra, forest and desert as well as the type of labour 
and dietary had their effects on the build and various characters of pre- 


man that were altered frequently as the ecological conditions of their life 
changed in different climatic belts. Such changes in the direction of selec- 
tion and survival led to occasional outbursts of rapid evolution of pre- 
man and early man in adaptation to their changed ways of living. The 
ecological law laid down by Bergmann has been found to have larger scope 
of application to living men with reference to the effects of the environ- 
ment on their body mass and form, physiological characteristics and be- 
haviour, habits and capacities. Men of the deserts, like the desert animals, 
show a light and lean body-build adapted to swift movement. The desert 
Arabs are light and thin. Contrasted with them are the forest-dwellers, 
who show a stocky, muscular build, adapted not merely to the need of 
locomotion, but the exercise of the major muscles and tissues for the varie- 
gated purposes of quarrying, hunting and fighting. A cold or hot desert 
and forest selected the physical characteristics of the primitive hunters, 
especially the proportion between the body area and volume. Physical 
anthropologists in their laboratories have been studying inter-racial dif- 
ferences in skin, hair, muscle and blood due to environmental influences. 
The close physiological adaptations are brought to light in a remarkable 
manner. In Africa, Hiernaux finds thick, massively wrinkled skin among 
pygmies and fine-grained skin among the long-legged Watusis. The dark 
skin of many tropical and sub-tropical races provides protection against 
ultra-violet light and contributes toheat-loss efficiency. Body hair is a 
covering adapted to the forest habitat and is found mostly among such 
denizens of forest and jungle as the pygmies, Alpines, Ainus, the Australian 
aborigines and the natives of New Caledonia. Coon finds low capacity 
to become fat, associated with a rigorous environment and the conditions 
of malnutrition. Steatopygy, as seen in the Bushmen and the Hotentots, 
has a survival value in so far as it stores fat without disturbing heat loss or 
locomotion as among the fat-tailed sheep and camels. Desert-dwellers 
show a relatively high blood content in relation to body weight an adap- 
tation to the need of sweating. Thomson and Buxton long ago found 
temperature and humidity responsible for the form of the nose. Where 
the air is cold the nose tends to be narrow and converse. The narrowness 
of the Eskimo nose seems to be in close harmony with Arctic conditions. 
Muller refers to the narrower eyes, shorter intestines and other adjust- 
ments to Arctic and almost purely carnivorous ways of life in groups which 
have long complied with such conditions. 1 Coon observes : "High, nar- 
row, prominent noses are found among both desert-dwellers and people 
living in moderately cold regions; in regions of extreme cold the forward 
position of the molars and the fat pads over them help maintain the thermal 
equilibrium of the organ, which in all races is also useful as a part of the 

1 Guidance in Human Evolution in Sol Tax (Ed.)' Tfo Evolution of Man, p. 426. 


machinery of speech." 1 "It has been suggested," remark Coon and his 
collaborator Birdsell, "that adaptation to cold is attained by developing big 
chests, short extremities and small globular bodies irradiating as little heat 
as possible. Arctic people present the least possible skin surface to the out- 
side world in proportion to volume and weight." 

As early man settled down both climate and food had their effects on 
his bodily structure and appearance and capacities for behaviour including 
intelligence. Different diets perhaps acted on the endocrine glands, which 
regulate the growth of the body, while abundance or lack of vitamins also 
modified the features of the racial type. The Eskimo from his youth up 
puts a very great strain on his jaws by continually chewing skins. Thom- 
son suggests that the peculiar form of the Eskimo skull with its penthouse 
top is due to the great development of the temporal muscles, which by 
continual use drag it into this shape. Living in a region where grains and 
other edibles yielding starch and sugar are not available, his intake of carbo- 
hydrates is exceedingly low. Yet he shows a good physique. He is per- 
haps an illustration of the environmental adaptation of metabolism at a 
lower level than the ordinary standard. It is also suggested that the eating 
of cereals in large quantities, a form of diet which necessitates a great deal 
of mastication, is associated with the form of face and jaw so characteristic 
of Eastern Asia. 2 The indirect action of labour necessary to secure food 
supply also helps to mould the physique of the people. The skeleton 
bears very delicate marks of the type of labour in which a people is engaged. 
Not less significant in human evolution is the web of ecological inter- 
relationships which the primitive man established and stabilised with the 
complement of the harmonic aggregations of plants and animals of the 
ecological area in which he originally rose and throve in numbers. Most 
of man's cereals were originally plants of the steppe, probably growing on 
its edges before they were domesticated by the primitive agriculturists and 
spread to the great plains. The chief animals that have now become 
entirely domesticated were also the gregarious types, which lived in wood- 
lands and meadows where man first emerged. It is the kind of wood-land 
animals available for domestication in certain ecological areas which largely 
governed man's early economic development and culture. The fades 
distinctive of the plant and animal community of a region leaves its impress 
upon social life and organisation by determining the nature and kind of food 
supply as well as the domestication of animals and the character of occupa- 
tions. Ecology in its wider and more comprehensive application to human 
evolution gives us a fades characteristic of the economic organisation of 
temperate steppes with large herds of mammals, of tropical rain-forests 

1 Human Variability and Natural Selection, The American Naturalist, September- 
October, 1955, 

1 See my Regional Sociology, pp. 215-218, also Buxton : Primitive Labour, chap. XV. 


with little animal life on the ground, of wet rice lands, of grass moor-lands 
abounding in sheep and goats, of arid deserts, of bleak tundras, of forested 
mountains, of arable low-lands, of fertile river-valleys and so on, deter- 
mined by the cumulative effects of soil and climate which directly govern 
plant formations and animal communities and, through the flora and fauna, 
govern the nature and variety of industries and economic forms. The 
ecological system is a dynamic balanced whole with its integrated inter- 
relations of man, plant and animal that develop into enduring social habits 
and values or culture, making for man's dominance and continuity in the 
ecological area. Survival, sustenance and permanence in relation to the 
ecological area that man (considered as population) inhabits comprise the 
functional pre-requisites of his ecological system. These underlie certain 
generic ecological values that are recognisable and enduring and that give 
a distinct articulation to his social adjustment. What is significant to 
remember is that even in a highly industrialised civilization the ecological 
picture and values cannot be missed. For industrial civilization finds its 
security now threatened due to the exhaustion of coal and petroleum and 
the diminishing supply of calcium, phosphorous and other minerals neces- 
sary for man's organic growth and economic stability, and of certain 
vitamins which he cannot manufacture synthetically, apart from the un- 
favourable effects of the prolonged loss of sun-shine, ultra-violet ray and 
green vegetation on his health and sanity. Obviously the evolutionary 
success in his adaptation to the geographical environment rests on certain 
ideal values which have their roots in ecological values, but which 
have reached the level of standards of moral behaviour. Yet he 
turns his attention to these only when he faces ecological calamity or dis- 
aster in an unbalanced or depleted environment, neglecting his constant 
dependence on the operation of the bio-ecological processes and events 
on which depend his sustenance, selection and continued survival. 

Man's arts and patterns of utilisation and progress are interlaced with 
soil, water and climate and also with the organic setting of the harmonious 
vegetable and animal communities that have arrived at a more or less stable 
synecological equilibrium. Economic and social values subserve the more 
comprehensive synecological values of the interdependence and balance of 
life. It is these latter which govern the pattern of his basic ecologic adjust- 
ment, dictated as much by his instincts and needs as by the heritage of his 
land-water culture in the course of his social development. Ecology, 
which is the science of community populations in their interdependences, 
is the foundation for the formulation of a consistent view of human evolu- 

The Natural History of Ecological Values 

In the hunter stage, which is a stage of culture universally passed 
through in the wood-land, man kills whatever beasts he meets with. Slowly 


he learns to discriminate between tolerant animals which he protects and 
intolerant animals against which he wages war. Then he finds that it is 
more useful to breed gregarious animals and succour their young even for 
the purpose of consuming their flesh. In this cattle-breeding stage, man 
first kills animals at all periods of their lives and also exhausts pasture lands. 
Gradually he develops the care, breeding and improvement of stocks fitted 
for particular conditions of climate and his own varied purposes. Both 
Hahn and Laufer stress that economic and magico-religious factors were 
equally connected with incipient domestication of animals in the early 
history of culture. 

The pastoral industry, when it is extensive, involves destructive ex- 
ploitation of the natural vegetation and may be described as robber econo- 
my. It is short-lived, for it destroys the ecologic balance on which it 
depends. In the light of this there is no need of postulating climatic cycles 
to account for early migrations of pastoral people which might have begun 
in seasons of drought, but droughts were not the sole cause. The causes 
of early migrations should be sought rather in the cumulative effects of mis- 
management of grazing lands, and progressive decrease in rainfall due to 
de-forestation. As man's forest and grass-burning reduced and destroyed 
forests, and as his overstocking of cattle, and especially sheep and goats, 
led to the impoverishment of pastures, he migrated to fresh woods and 

Toynbee in his enquiry into the life of Nomadic Civilization observes 
that it looks as though the phenomenon of occasional nomad eruptions 
out of the Desert into the Sown has a rhythm of its own which is as regular, 
on its own scale, as the nomad's regular cyclic annual movement, south 
to north in spring and north to south in autumn in search of pasture. While 
the movement in search of pasture has a year period, the eruptive movement 
resulting from widespread ecologic unbalance and calamity appears to have 
a six-hundred-year period. 

Gradually the seasonal movements of hunting and pastoral groups 
from the interior to the open plains and back again are superseded by per- 
manent migrations to grass-lands and thence to river plains and deltaic 
areas where relatively fixed habitations arise. The productivity of the well- 
watered valley and plain and facilities of irrigation and transport, which 
promoted continuous contacts between peoples of the upper and lower 
reaches of the river, produced "ribbon development" that characterised 
ancient riverain settlements. Early in his development man's conflict 
with the wild beasts of prey, which his descent from his arboreal habitat 
involved, led to the discovery of tools of stone, bone or wood which were 
superseded by those of copper and bronze about 3000 B.C. As he multi- 
plied in numbers on the grass-lands and as the forests decreased, there were 
conflicts between the shepherds and hunters. Such conflicts made man 
rapidly more and more gregarious; these contributed towards consolidating 


families, and hordes into tribes and established patriarchal authority in the 
tribe of kindred, as distinguished from the mere patriarchal family. The 
integrated and more numerous tribe could appropriate larger and better 
territories and defend these against any smaller groups of competitors. 
This held good more for pastoral than for hunting communities, and more 
for farming than for pastoral communities, the succession of types of land 
exploitation bearing a direct relation to the density of population. The 
discovery of agriculture and the domestication of animals in the Neolithic 
Age marked the transformation of the simple economy of clan, tribe and 
territory into the complex economy of a larger aggregation. Such economy 
could only be maintained on the basis of a new understanding of ecological 
inter-relationships of man, animal, plant and insect that are woven into 
cultural needs and values. Ecological and cultural adaptations are enmesh- 
ed enabling man to multiply his numbers so that hamlets, villages and towns 
could rise as dynamic patterns of adjustment of large populations to the 
resources of the region. 

delations of Magic and Religion to "Ecology. 

Not merely social organization and traditions but also religious customs 
and beliefs, focussing and idealising ecological values, came to be impli- 
cated in the economic development of the Neolithic man. In the forest 
environment of early man, totemism and the cult of animal guardian spirits 
are the earliest spiritual expressions of man's ecological alliance with plants 
and animals that surrounded him and captured his imagination by their 
economic rewards, by their strength, cunning or any other unique trait. 
Thus these came to designate human relationships or served as guardians 
among the casual feeders and hunters in forest and bush-land. Totemism 
has different roots in different primitive settings, but there is no doubt that 
the partial or full interdiction against the consumptions of certain totemic 
animals and plants that are considered sacred may have its genesis in the 
ecological necessity of assuming the supply of scarce resources for a pri- 
mitive tribe. Durkheim mentions that old men were freed from the restric- 
tions under which ordinary men were placed and also that elsewhere only 
a little consumption was permitted. To go beyond that amount was a 
ritual fault that had grave consequences including death. Spencer and 
Gillen held that these restrictions were not the remnants of what was once 
a rigorous prohibition now losing hold, but the beginnings of an inter- 
diction which was only commencing to establish itself. 1 Totemic and 
religious purposes have also aided the domestication of animals. In South- 
eastern Asia the pig and the chicken have totemic significance, while the 
humped bull seemed to have been associated with religious motives in 
the Indus Valley Civilization as the horse, whose appearance in India 
was associated with the advent of the Rig-vedic Aryans, had great significance 

1 The "Elementary Forms of Religious Life, pp. 129-130. 


as the sacrificial animal for their kings and warriors. 1 The value and 
entire development of magic are rooted in man's desire for mastery over 
the ecological environment. He practised rainfall and sun-rise magic, and 
the rain fell and the sun rose. In his myths and legends he ascribed the 
power of flight to his heroes and gods. In his animal dances he imitated 
the chase and hunting of the fearful beasts and pronounced spells and 
invocations, gathering courage in his hazardous adventures. He drew 
the various beasts on a cave wall and made clay models of them for their 
destruction by magic. All states of tension fear, anger, love and greed 
are dealt with by magic which not only safeguards the emotional stability 
of the individual but also dramatically resolves the ecologic crisis of the 
community. Malinowski stresses that primitive religion subserves the 
most valuable function of releasing emotional and economic stresses and 
strains connected with the hazards of gardening and fishing. But primi- 
tive religion is concerned with every phase of mental life and is not merely 
cathartic in its aim. Wishing to conquer death, man elaborates mortuary 
rites, preserving the corpse and muttering spells to revive it. Or he 
places charmed objects in the tomb assuring a special life for the dead. 
Again, his religion promises immortality so that he can rise up to heaven 
in a chariot and enjoy all the pleasures of life there. Health and longevity, 
wealth and power, love and fellowship all come under the domain of magic. 
For man wants to believe what he wishes or fears most. It is the acts of 
magic which fulfil the wish and dispel the fear through supernatural power 
which super-imposes its quality upon the acts, there being no division 
between natural and supernatural in savage mind. The interpenetration 
of ecologic and supernatural realms is the inevitable device of primitive 
man to control perplexing and unpredictable ecologic forces and realities. 
All magic, myth and religion of primitive peoples are dramatised resolutions 
of ecologic tensions, and achieve individual integration and ecologic 

The ecologic anxieties and fears of shepherd and pastoral folks are 
far different from those of hunters and food-gatherers. Magic among 
the Todas is entirely connected with the rearing and milking of buffaloes. 
A different kind of magic and religion originates in the course of long 
marches by day and vigils by night when organised shepherds seek new 
pasture lands. Organised pastoralism furnishes early man with the ecolo- 
gic beliefs and values concerning the procession of nature, the sequence 
of the seasons and the rhythm and order of vegetation. For the ecologic 
tensions and crises of pastoral existence are ever-recurrent, and depend for 
their resolution on the herds and men following nature's cycles and sequ- 
ences. Out of the ecologic continuity of flocks and herds through the 
generations also arise new beliefs and values of immortality. The autho- 

Mukerjee : The Political Economy of Population, p. 67. 



ritarian head of the shepherd-households creates God's image as the Bene- 
ficent Patriarch. The hazardous route of migration through grass-lands 
and deserts is invested with moral and spiritual meanings. The Way be- 
comes the Path of Salvation. Such a tradition is still strong among many 
peoples of Aryan descent. 

The Ecological Reliefs and Values of the Agricultural Communities 

Early man in certain regions derived more ecologic elements and 
values of his culture from the deciduous forest and bush-lands than from the 
grass-lands, and passed from the hunting phase to some kind of intermit- 
tent agriculture in the scattered settlements of the open plains by skipping 
over pastoralism. But agriculture could not develop beyond hoe-cultiva- 
tion before man had learnt the protection, nurture and intelligent use of 
horses and cattle as co-dominants of the grass-lands. Cultivation and 
irrigation probably originated and evolved in the margins of wood-land, 
skirted by the river rather than in the wood-land itself. But permanent 
cultivation could not be introduced before magic and ceremonial practice 
associated sowing with the killing of animal or man or with the sexual orgy. 
The tentative experiments in agriculture are in most countries of the world 
still dominated by a priesthood devoted, first, to animal sacrificial offer- 
ings, and, then, to the observance of a large variety of seasonal fasts and 
festivities that allay suspense and anxiety immediately before sowing, and 
elicit strenuous toil during weeding and ploughing operations. If the 
hunters and savages have their dance festivals, ball games and surf riding, 
the agricultural folks have their hilarious harvesting festivals which cele- 
brate thanks-giving to nature for the fruition of the toil and moil from 
seed time to harvest. 

The ecologic values of the vast complex of magic, religion and cere- 
monial practice are closely woven into the warp and woof of his early 
biological community system with his domesticated plants and animals, 
such as cereals and draft beasts, and his allies,parasites and scavengers, such as 
legumes, weeds, rats, dogs and pigs. All are enmeshed in an ecological 
interchange that man maintains and develops for his own survival and pro- 
gress. Sometimes there is protection and care of animals and birds such 
as deer, monkeys and parrots that live in herds and flocks and trespass 
on and deplete human food supplies. Man in many regions finds himself 
more at home in the deciduous forest from which he has originated than 
in the open plain or prairie whose rigours and distances he cannot with- 
stand. Further, as he has brought to the open plain his habit of indiscrimi- 
nate extermination of wild animals, he has caused the grain and forage- 
eating rodent populations to multiply to an extent which jeopardises farm- 
ing and animal raising. Feudalism and the combination of privileges in 
land-holding with military responsibilities, which serve as the foundation of 
the authoritative type of state and the class system, represent, however, 


original and essential ecologic acquisitions in the deciduous forest environ- 
ment. These have left an indelible impress on the social development of 
peoples who sprang from the forests and steppes of Europe and Central 
Asia. Ecologically speaking, feudalism, as seen in the manorial system, 
represents an ecologic adjustment bringing about both stability of the 
rural population and increasing returns from the land. Sociologically 
speaking, the power and prestige scheme and stress of obedience and 
protectiveness, loyalty and authoritarianism, associated with feudalism, 
are distinctive of this higher ecologic phase. By giving protection 
to groups of cultivators as serfs, vassals or tenants in the forest or virgin 
prairie, it contributes to replace intermittent cultivation by intensive agri- 
culture, and encourages both increase of population and a higher level of 
living and standard of moral behaviour within the framework of a social 
hierarchy. The contrasts of ecologic habitat, forests, grass-lands and open 
plains even now decide many of man's distinctive preferences and cultural 
traits rooted in his ecological balance and solidarity. 

A denser growth of population quickens the march of peoples, and 
they extend further and faster from the forests through grass-lands to the 
open plains and marshes down the course of the river and its tributaries. The 
village community now originates as a universal ecologic pattern in the 
spacious river valley, subjected to population pressure, for regulating the 
streams and distributing their water for irrigation serving the holdings 
that are scattered in different blocks of the agricultural settlement. It 
controls both arable lands and pastures as well as sources of irrigation. It 
equalises the opportunities of agriculture for all, prevents the rise of a class 
of have-nots, and enforces a routine of farming which looks to the interests 
of the later generations. From this economic management also develop 
the Council of the Five, and the rudiments of village and communal govern- 
ment. Such institutions are ubiquitous, and even now preserve their 
greatest strength and vitality in vast open river valleys which have witnes- 
sed the gradual expansion of agricultural tribes. The stabilised, cultivating 
ecologic animal, as he first leads an organised social life and multiplies in 
numbers, prepares for the future and has a plan. His magic, religion and 
moral beliefs become different. To obtain rainfall he sprinkles water 
on the dry and parched cultivated field or ascends the hill top, sacrifices 
an animal and flings rocks and boulders down the hill slope so that rain may 
follow the continuous rumbling roar like that of thunder. Or he lights 
fire so that rain may come out of the cloud of smoke rising to the sky. In 
the tropical orchards of the Pacific the garden magician with his proper 
rituals on selected plots imposes upon gardening a time-table and organisa- 
tion which the climate does not do. Again, the priest offers prayer to the 
mother deity vigorously sculptured with a rhythmic arrangement of curves 
and volumes that underlines her fecundity and opulence so that she may 
bestow a rich harvest. The gods of the sky, wind, and cloud, and of the 


dawn, sun and moon also now enter into man's religious consciousness. 
He invokes even the Earth Spirits for bestowing fertility to his fields 
and protection against his diseases and those of his domesticated stock. 
Moon worship and astrology originate for forecasting the periodical in- 
undations of the rivers an<^ the seasons of sowing and harvesting. Thus 
does early man seek alliance with a much wider range of ecologic forces 
which surround him and influence and overreach his life. It is the priest- 
hood which forms the link between farming culture and the unseen ecolo- 
gic forces and realities. They ensure the early farmer knowledge of the 
sowing and reaping seasons, linked with a crude astronomy they cultivate, 
and recovery from drought and disease, which are mixed up with their 
magic, taboo and ritual. Early man's change from casual subsistence to 
sure and cooperative living in the agricultural community is facilitated by 
the temple and the priest, and by worship and sacrifice. 

The Ecology of Houses and Habitations 

Man's pattern of habitations in relation to the ecological area, region 
and cosmos shows distinct stages in the course of his social development. 
The first stage is represented by the primitive community's tentative, hapha- 
zard and careless transformation of the features of landscape. On the sunny 
or wind-protected sides of a hill or mountain, in the meadows or clearings 
of a thick jungle, on the fertile alluvial plains intersected by a big river, 
and on the ridges of marshy low-lands, we find scattered hamlets of primitive 
folks and regular compact villages of civilized communities cropping up. 
Their form and pattern are entirely governed by the conditions of soil, 
topography, water-supply and agriculture. As long as man's reactions to 
the Mother Earth the idealisation of invisible and unpredictable ecologic 
forces met with in all early cultures are governed by fear and anxiety, 
it is these bewildering ecologic forces that are writ large on the patterns of 
human habitation, whether the Kraal of the Zulus and Bantus, the Igloo of 
the Eskimos and the pile-dwelling of the South-sea Islanders. 

The second stage in the development of man's ecological relationship 
is represented by rational and systematic adjustment of the environment 
to his differentiated needs for protection, food, shelter and worship. The 
villages of all civilized communities everywhere show a pre-meditated plan 
and pattern, a geometrical transformation of the landscape characterised by 
tjie formation of cultivated fields and houses into a systematic unity* Indian, 
Chinese, Greek, Roman and mediaeval European villages all show a clear 
and well-defined lay-out, a systematic pattern of the streets and introvert 
arrangement of the houses built around inner courtyards. Often walls 
are constructed cutting off the habitation from the surrounding country- 
side symbols of self-competence, self-sufficiency and solidarity of the 
community. The lay-out of human habitations in this phase of social deve- 
lopment has a religious and even metaphysical significance embodying the 


reciprocal relationship of the microcosm and macrocosm in the living 
orientations of space and time. 

The third stage of the spiritual interchange between man and cosmos 
is foreshadowed by modern applied ecology which looks forwards to man's 
future advance through a bio-ecologic cooperation, based on the scientific 
comprehension of the complex web of Life that comprises both the living 
and the non-living realms, and this is deeper than, and goes beyond, co- 
operation merely within the human community. 

Such a conception is historically embodied in the pattern of construction 
of villages, towns and temples in India that are built according to a plan in 
which the habitations and temples are replicas of the macrocosm, and man 
in his circumambulation of the village, town or temple follows the course 
of the stars in the firmament. The metaphysical idea of the unity of the 
universe governed the plan of city and temple building in India, Tibet, 
Burma, Siam, Cambodia and Indonesia. The city in its entirety and the 
temple in its regular hierarchy in its galleries or terraces is a monumental 
embodiment of the universe-structure. The city is the temple and the 
temple is the city in India. The plan of the temple is reproduced in the 
city and vice versa. Man's architectural and engineering arts here deliberately 
produce the illusion of cosmic expanse. The architectural composition of 
towers in the temple that rise by the side of towers, gradually increasing in 
height or dimension leads the mind to the wholeness and emptiness of sky 
a solid vault which covers the Indian legendary world-mountain Meru that 
supports the sky or Mount Mandara that is used as a stick by the gods for 
the Churning of the Ocean. A metaphysical unity in diversity of levels or 
grades defined the objectives of city and temple planning that gained in 
social awareness, foresight and coordination across the centuries. 

The expansive ruthlessness of the Industrial Revolution with its un- 
paralleled, one-sided exploitation of resources and ecologic unbalance has 
reached its apogee in contemporary architecture in the sky-scraper that at 
once embodies and creates intensity, disharmony and confusion. The 
symmetry and grim exactness of the sky-scraper echo the injustice, irrationa- 
lity and chaos of the industrial structure, soil exhaustion, rural decay and 
metropolitan concentration that have held the masses in their grip with the 
underlying canker of insecurity, unemployment and maladjustment. The 
modern sky-scraper, whether in Europe, America, India or China, is built 
entirely out of the common man's economic reach and moral stature. It 
also involves stupendous and profound change in man's use of resources 
through a primarily quantitative expansion. It lays upon man at its base 
an inhuman driving pressure and urgency that all the more signalise the 
frustration of his goal and satisfaction. Like the Egyptian pyramid of 
old, the sky-scraper overwhelms, demoralises and conquers his personality 
by engendering fear and awe through exploiting the economic and political 


power implicit in the social organisation and producing an unexampled 
ecologic maladjustment of man and resources. 

The Ecological Unbalance on a Global Scale 

Two major processes have been operative since the middle of the 
nineteenth century in bringing about ecological unbalance, unsettlement and 
calamity on a global scale. Since the Industrial and Commercial Revolu- 
tion in Europe and the European scramble for territories, raw materials 
and minerals in the various continents, the world has been witnessing an 
unprecedented exhaustion of natural resources and destructive erosion of 
soils. These are now proceeding in such an accelerated tempo after the 
two world wars as to seriously threaten the standard of living of the future 
generations of mankind. Industrialization has spread throughout the world 
and is linked up with commercial agriculture that has expanded everywhere, 
leading to increasing depletion of the world's soils, grasses and trees. The in- 
crease of world population which has been also phenomenal in this epoch 
has also aggravated this quick one-sided exploitation of nature and loss 
of ecologic balance, aided by modern agricultural engineering and techno- 
logy. Many undeveloped countries in different continents have come under 
the ambit of world science, technology and industrialization. These had 
evolved habits and customs with reference to sex, marriage and reproduction 
that established some kind of a balance between birth-rate and mortality. 
The spread of modern medicine, control of diseases and public health 
measures have reduced their death-rates so markedly ihat ancient customs 
connected with marriage and reproduction have now become serious mis- 
fits. Both the artificially bolstered-up industrial standard of living and 
man's indiscriminate multiplication have been destroying the wise and 
durable patterns of farming of old civilizations and the synecological values- 
associated with it. Modern industrialism with its myths of more consump- 
tion and more production have shown a characteristic insensitiveness to 
ancient agricultural ways and values. As this spreads throughout the world 
it transforms traditional forms of land utilization based on foresight and 
moderation, pinning its faith in an infinite capacity both to produce and to 
consume that is regarded as the sole remedy of an accelerated tempo of 
population growth, heedless of the depletion of nature's resources. 

Each region of the world embodies a specific pattern of maintenance 
of its edaphic, hydrographical and vegetative cycle for its stability and 
a separate pattern of technical and social measure for the basic improvement 
of the living standard. of man. Everywhere on the face of the globe the 
Industrial and Technological Revolution proceeding on a world scale is 
leading to a wanton destruction of resources. Everywhere, and especially 
in ancient countries having large sedentary populations, the roots of the 
region's life are being sapped, destroying the balance and rhythm of nature 
which alone can safeguard the stability of human culture. To the ancient 


recurring catastrophes of famine and pestilence is now added a state of 
chronic famine of wood, coal and oil without any remedy or substitution. 
The Western mission of developing the under-developed economies of the 
world through the introduction of tractors and fertilizers upsets the wise 
native system of crop rotation. Horticulture through the use of the spade 
and hoe and the succession of legumes with cereals that kept alive the soil 
fertility at a stable, though moderate, level in India and China are superseded 
by the application of modern technology that sacrifices future prosperity 
for quick and immediate gain. Engineering devices, dam construction, 
flood control and river management in the areas of the Niger in West Africa, 
the Sutlej and the Indus in the Punjab, the Damodar in Bengal are not 
enough to prevent the recurring ecological calamity that had led to the ruin 
of many ancient cultures such as Harappa, Mesopotamia, Kapilavastu, 
Palestine, Angkor and Gaur. There is great risk that India's vast multiple 
river valley schemes may be jeopardised without afforestation and adop- 
tion of conservative methods of agriculture and grazing by small forest 
users, farmers and graziers in the upper catchment areas of the river valleys. 
Technology is futile unless it is strengthened by a change in the system 
of land tenure, in the practice of bunding, terracing and conservative agri- 
culture and in the programme of rural democracy working out a new 
balance of soil, water and farming, area by area. Hydraulic engineering 
projects are bound to fail if these are not integrated with ecological pro- 
grammes of water-shed management. On the whole, the conservation 
practices that are recently introduced are of the nature of mitigating "biotic" 
injuries and sufferings. The art of producing land health, wholesomeness 
and vigour through a system of ecological knowledge and foresight has not 
yet emerged. The world needs a new ethic and aesthetic under which 
man may transform the ecological creed of science into a normal and 
religious obligation to the future generations. Without the virtues of thrift, 
humility and foresight mankind cannot bequeath a good earth for future 
prosperity nor discipline the modern industrial mood engaged in artless 
destruction on a global scale. 

The Ecological Unity of the Earth 

Applied ecology can show the way towards inter-regional cooperation 
and the solution of many inter-racial conflicts. Through the processes 
of competition, specialisation and migration, the entire earth has been 
divided into economic regions, such as pioneer zones of forestry, mining 
and plantation, agricultural zones and zones of manufactures. Each zone 
of settlement presents its characteristic population distribution, its distinct 
pattern of social composition, stratification and constitution. As in the 
plant world, the fringes of the different vegetation regions are ever being 
invaded by the surrounding vegetation, similarly the seeds of dominant 
civilization move out to neighbouring regions and germinate. From the 


centres and foci of the old agricultural settlements peasant colonies spread 
out to the grass-lands, sand-dunes and forests from the manufacturing 
zones, pioneer entrepreneurs, financiers and traders move out to mining 
and plantation zones for supplying their homelands with raw materials. 
Between the homeland and the new frontier of civilization, there is a give- 
and-take of the human material as well, the homeland being used both as 
a reservoir for fresh supply of migrants and a refuge for those who fail in 
struggle a nd adaptation. The straggle and adaptation in the frontier 
zones are both climatic and social. The capacity for quick change of 
position in the social hierarchy and the occupational pattern and the capacity 
for quick acclimatisation mark out the successful migrant in the pioneer 
belts of settlement. 

In the early stages of settlement, the pioneer invading stocks persist 
in a one-sided exploitation of the backward group or region, and maintain 
superior political power and prestige as well as economic and social status, 
which cannot easily be challenged by the education, efficiency or ambitions 
of the backward groups. The social structure shows an unbalance like a 
pyramid standing on its apex where the dominating ethnic groups, numeri- 
cally the fewest, are concentrated. In the intermediate stage the social 
structure of the settlement is characterised by territorial, social and occu- 
pational segregation of the different ethnic groups, gradual levelling up of 
culture and efficiency and a constant upward pressure from the base of the 
occupation pyramid to the apex. In the last stage, the division of labour and 
social control patterns are governed entirely by the needs of conservation 
and development of the resources and inhabitants of the region; and ethnic 
groups and individuals keep changing positions and occupations until the 
different parts of the social structure approximate a symbiotic relationship 
maintained on the basis of the integrity and uplift of the ecologic order 
itself. Political power and economic prestige are shared by the superior 
and inferior groups; cultural distance is bridged; and the transition from 
a pioneer and backward zone of settlement to a mature zone with its modern 
technical and cultural equipment, distinctive of change of the ecological 
base, is accompanied by an occupational and spatial redistribution and a 
new occupational balance, which conserves the resources of the region. 

The trend of inter-zonal ecologic cooperation on the earth is from a 
relationship based on a one-sided parasitism arising out of difference in 
levels of equipment and culture to one based on territorial division of labour 
in a uniform level of efficiency. World ecology lays bare the danger-spots 
in human demographic distribution and exploitation of the earth, and in 
each new economic zone or frontier belt of civilization points the way 
towards the establishment of the balance of population, occupation and 
culture, based on a symbiosis between the more efficient and immigrant 
and the backward resident groups, and the conservation and development 
of regional resources from the standpoint of its original or permanent resi- 


dents rather than from that of the intrusive and immigrant non-residents. 
The physiological equipment, dietetic standard and incapacity for manual 
toil of the latter often make them less fitted, like exotic plants and animals 
inappropriate for ecologic aims, to profit best from the inheritance of the 
region. The present mal-distribution of world population and resources; 
the accompanying unbalance of agriculture, manufacturing and extractive 
industries; the social mal-adjustment and chaos characterised by the dis- 
parity of social status, prestige and power; and the exploitation of under- 
developed regions by dominant cultural groups, all these are the root-causes 
of world poverty in the midst of plentitude of resources. In no epoch in the 
history of human space distribution and exploitation of the earth, have an 
ecological goal and programme been in more urgent and widespread demand 
than in the modern age with its economic nationalism splitting up the ecolo- 
gical unity of the earth, and its economic imperialism disintegrating the 
accumulated force of region and tradition. 



Homeostasis and Evolution of the Human Mammal 

Man as a mammal lives and thrives both in his external geographical 
environment and also in his internal biological environment. Or better, 
the human mammal's biological functions are divided between his external 
and internal environments. His internal environment comprises his system 
of blood circulation, secretion and lymph and the ramifying nervous orga- 
nization. In his case both the external and internal environments smoothly 
act and react upon each other, maintaining his bodily and mental health, 
and regulating all his transactions with both the physical and the social 
environment. His biological adaptation to the natural environment, with 
which there goes on a constant interchange of materials and energy, is in 
fact mediated both by his overt responses and internal adjustments the 
self-control and regulation of water, sugar, salts and temperature, among 
other adjustments. His living parts are bathed by the circulating fluids, 
especially the blood stream. He does not exist in the atmosphere which 
surrounds him but is separated from the latter by a layer of inert material. 
He exists in a fluid matrix which provides him with his private internal 
environment. Just in so far as this internal environment or fluid matrix 
is kept from noteworthy variations, caused by climate, food supply and ex- 
cessive toil, there are no internal adjustments to be made; the internal organs 
can perform their functions undisturbed by the ups and downs of external 
circumstance or by the possible consequences of his own strenuous activity. 
The nearly thermostable state, the constancy of the mild alkalinity of the 
blood and its sugar concentration are examples of this stability. The above 
brief analysis is derived from the distinguished work of Walter Cannon who 
gives this constancy, so peculiar to the regulatory processes, a special name, 
"homeostasis." Homeostasis with a tendency towards dynamic equilibrium 
and periodicity of physiological activity is the regulation, control and main- 
tenance of conditions for man's optimal existence. 1 The great physiological 
advantage of homeostasis is that it releases for the exercise of their peculiar 
services the higher functions of the brain. Man's mental evolution would 
not have been possible if the functions of his vertebrate body during mil- 
lennia of evolution were not automatically controlled and liberated from 
disturbing or limiting external conditions. 

A special portion of the nervous system has become established in man 
that coordinates in an automatic manner the regulatory arrangement for 

1 Walter Cannon : The Wisdom of the Body. 


preserving steady states in the body, notwithstanding conditions that may 
hamper or be destructive. His physiological stability and freedom of action 
are linked with each other so that there is relatively a smooth and easy adap- 
tation to his complex external environment. Further, the structure of the 
human brain and the nervous organization are differentiated towards larger 
creative and social use of energy and material, towards more subtle and 
enduring response to fellow-man grounded in his physiological liberation 
from external restraints and pressures. His sociality is also very largely 
based on the delicate and fine adjustment of the brain and the nervous 
system with their associated freedom and environmental control. The 
development of the frontal lobes of the brain in particular favour control 
over the instinctive life, reciprocal behaviour, cooperation and learning. 
Washburn observes : "Our brains are not just enlarged, but the increase 
in size is directly related to tool-use and speech, and to increased memory and 
planning. The general pattern of the human brain is very similar to that of 
ape or monkey. Its uniqueness lies in its larger size and in the particular 
areas which are enlarged." 1 According to Rensch, the capacity for learning 
is proportionate to the fore-brain enlargement. On the other hand, social 
cooperation heightens the efficiency of the brain and the sympathetic nervous 
system and renders more certain the selection for survival of socially advant- 
ageous brain qualities. The use of force or cunning in dealings within 
society, as in theft, robbery or exploitation or between peoples and nations 
as in war, cold or hot, expropriation and genocide, is inimical to the evolu- 
tion of mental life, and therefore upsets the age-long evolutionary process 
which has selected man for the highest social destiny. 

The Human Mammal's Brain and Hand Major Instruments of Evolution 

Ever since man's fore-runner differentiated himself from the anthropoid 
stock, and made his fateful descent from the trees to the terra firma, not only 
intelligence, cleverness and insight but also gentleness, kindliness and 
sociability were imposed upon him. 2 All the terrestrial creature's bodily 
and physiological features were making him more and more social and 
moral. The homjnid's bodily development in the terrestrial habitat assured 
his further advance as it moulded a human nature, its "humanness" dif- 
ferentiating itself from the nature of all other animals. 

Already the human mammal's bodily modifications during his arboreal 
apprenticeship enabled him to carry a brain that became the prime instru- 
ment of selection, survival and progress. Among the ape-men the hands, 
completely freed from locomotion, became the flexible, adaptive instruments 
of the mind feeling their way through life's new tasks and adventures in the 

1 Speculations on the Interrelations of the History of Tools and Biological Evolution 
in Spuhler (Ed.) : The Evolution of Man's Capacity for Culture, pp. 27-29. 

* Compare Montagu : The Direction of Human Development and Julian Huxley : Man 
in the Modern World and The Uniqueness of Man. 


terrestrial environment. Man's plastic, generalized, manipulative hand is 
the anatomical mould and model of all major tools, weapons and machines 
discovered by him. G. Rvdsz observes : "The clenched fist represents 
the hammer, the grasping hand one-half of a pair of tongs, the curved hand 
the spoon and the spade, the hand with fingers spread out the fork and the 
rake, and lastly the thumb and index finger in opposition to each other 
represent the fixed and valuable instruments for gauging. Even the most 
complicated machines imitate the position and movement of hands and 
fingers." Tools, weapons and machines are the unprecedented biological 
extensions of the fateful human handedness enjoined in man's manipula- 
tive, controlling functions with his big brain and stereoscopic eyes. The 
big and fine brain was well adapted for inquisitiveness and productiveness 
as well as for the control and manipulation of the hands wielding a variety 
of tools for delicate and complex adjustments. Stereoscopic colour-vision 
also aided a precise and meaningful picture of objects and events. The 
closeness of the human brain-hand-eye nexus is abundantly demonstrated 
by modern neurology. 1 Without a proper appreciation of the biology of 
tools, the tool-making and tool-changing animal's control over the external 
world and the transformation of his body and mind in the process cannot 
be understood. 

Interacting Factors in the Si%e and Growth of Brain 

The extraordinary development and transmission of man's extra-cor- 
poreal tools largely dispensed with bodily adaptations to the environment 
in his evolutionary scheme. As artificial tools and weapons were used, 
the need for natural tools and weapons for offence and defence the teeth, 
and especially the great eye-teeth, and the finger-nails of the primates 
dwindled. As a consequence the upper jaw shrank, enabling man to pro- 
duce effective speech, and the muzzle was also converted into a face leaving 
ample room needed for cranial cavity. Some physical anthropologists 
consider that Java man with his huge jaws, heavy with large teeth, was 
not a speaking animal. His brain size is intermediate between that of ape 
and man. The brain, skull and chin all grew longer and the eyes were 
projected forward in emerging man and his face was fashioned by the new 
way of life in the terrestrial habitat. It took a long time for the human 
countenance to develop its characteristic features. That evolution began 
with man's arboreal ancestors among whom vision was at a premium and 
the eyes underwent a big improvement. Both the development of the 
eyes and facial muscles stimulated social communication and intercourse. 
The expression of such basic emotions as love, anger, fear, pleasure and 
pain by slight facial modifications proved in particular invaluable for the 
development of a complex variety of social relations and behaviour. Above 

1 The Evolution of Human Nature, p. 386. 


all, the reduction of the size and heaviness of the jaws permitted the charac- 
teristic enlargement of the human brain size. As man used and manipulated 
tools and words, his brain also grew. According to the wellknown neuro- 
logist Herrick, "the human brain is the most complicated structural apparatus 
known to science. If all the equipment of the telegraph, telephone and 
radio of the North American continent could be squeezed into a half-gallon 
cup, it would be less intricate than the three pounds (1400 cubic centimetres 
capacity) of brain that fill your skull and mine. More than half of this brain 
tissue is cerebral cortex and parts immediately dependent upon it. The 
most ungifted normal man has twice as much of this tissue as the most 
highly educated chimpanzee." The larger and heavier the brain, the greater 
the intellectual activity and voluntary control of behaviour. This is a broad 
generalisation. For the weight or size of the brain is only a rough indication 
of mental activity. Scientists mention that Anatole France had a brain 
of only 1 1 oo cubic centimetres i.e. half a pound below average. It is note- 
worthy that the brain of a human idiot is of the same size as that of the 
chimpanzee and of the early fossil man-apes. Herrick points out that the 
enlargement of the orimate cortex was rapidly accelerated at the transition 
from ape to man, and this acceleration did not precede but followed the 
bodily changes associated with the erect posture, and the shift from arboreal 
to terrestrial environment. The cortical differential of man followed changes 
in the skeletal and muscular systems in adaptation to the changed patterns 
of behaviour in his terrestrial habitat. "The ape became a biped before 
he became a man." 

Man's upright position is as basic arid original as any fundamental 
instinct. The straight and supple pillar of the human body, the spinal chord, 
enables it to carry a weighty brain-case easily at both rest and movement. 
The erect posture, the pair of sprinting feet with their supporting heels, 
the broad pelvic bones and the swelling buttocks, thighs and calves differen- 
tiate humans from other creatures and are all the outcome of his desperate 
need to run for sheer survival. These progressively developed on the 
grass-lands. Like his quick movement, his needs of vision, alertness 
efficient discrimination and quick thought were also far greater due to the 
reduction of security which the loss of his climbing powers implies. The 
evolution of his preferred erect posture in gait had, according to George 
S. Klein, enormous consequences for his perceptual potentialities and dis- 
criminative capacity in relation to objects around him. He observes : 
"It may well be that spatial perception depends much more on the vertical 
orientation than is appreciated. In making possible new discriminative 
sets it perhaps also made possible man's developing many more intentions 
and claims upon objects than he could have without it." 1 Active and 
effective discrimination of friends or enemies and favourable or dangerous 

1 Perceptions, Motives and Personality in McCary (Ed.) ; Psychology of Personality. 


elements in the environment enabled the ape-man to come more to the 
open grassland with wide horizons and facilitated his shift from foraging 
to hunting which was crucial in man's emergence. Sewall Wright has 
recently shown that man's ways of living not only gave him an erect pos- 
ture, emancipated his hands and altered his physique in many other ways 
but also changed the matings and therefore the evolutionary process. 1 

Interacting Factors in the Individuali^ation of Man 

Biologists and physical anthropologists show considerable differences 
of opinion as to how, why and when certain subhuman creatures were 
modified in their bodily and mental traits until they assumed their charac- 
teristic human pattern. They are apt to stress the role of one single factor 
or set of factors and overlook the congruence of influences and changes at 
different levels that fashion a human structure and nature. There is no 
single or simple key to the complex phenomenon the emergence of Man 
and of a Human Nature. There * 'converged" the influences of complex 
factors at different dimensions, anatomical and physiological, ecological and 
economic, psychological and sociological and demographic. Of these, the 
outstanding ones which may be selected as responsible for the differentiation 
of human from anthropoid structure and nature are : 

1. Anatomical and physiological : man's erect posture, emancipation 
of hands from the function of locomotion, movement with the aid of legs 
and feet, and increase in the quantity and complexity of the brain and ner- 
vous system, favouring cortical control of sex and other emotions and 
invention of tools and speech. 

2. Ecological and economic : his adoption of the hunting way as 
adaptation to the grass-lands with abundant game, use of tools and imple- 
ments, division of labour, economic cooperation and migration. 

3. Psychological : his enduring sexuality and association of sexes, 
prolonged dependency of offspring, parental tenderness, and general sociabi- 
lity and educability. 

4. Sociological : his monogamous mating and stable family, large 
compact and heterogenous community, use of words and other symbolic 
devices and permanent social heritage. 

5. Demographic: his moderate density of population due to the 
aggregation of families into large communities which establishes the 
genotype through a quick selection of physical and mental traits of selec- 
tive advantage, and accelerates evolution in adaptation to the changed 
habitat, needs and ways of living. 

All the above factors and influences were interdependent and congruent 
occurring in the fateful process of transformation of primate into human 

1 Quoted by Gardner Murphy in Psychology and the Knowledge of Man in Leary 
(Ed.): The Unity of Knowledge, p. 106. 


ecology. But the central factor and influence was, of course, the remarkable 
growth of the brain and nervous system. 

Man's brain is not a mere thinking organ. It also controls and co- 
ordinates the movements and activities of the hands and other organs of 
the body. J.B.S. Haldane considers that between the two super-animal 
activities of the human brain, manual skill and logical thought, the former 
is the earlier acquisition of the two and the capacity of language and thought 
has grown up around it. 1 Washburn also says that it is possible that tool- 
using may require much less brain than does speech and might have started 
as soon as the hands were freed from locomotor functions. "Oral tradi- 
tions, essential for complicated human society," according to him, "were not 
possible with less than 700 to 800 c.c. of brain, and there is no likelihood that 
elaborate traditions of tool-making are possible at lesser capacities, although 
simple pebble tools might well be." 2 Man's learning and capacity in the 
grassy open country to use at least simple tools and implements were prior 
to his use of words, signs and symbols. It was the tool-using and tool- 
changing tradition which was the first to develop and be transmitted among 
his social heritage. Wits and grass lands encouraged omnivorous and 
hunting habits. Combat against the big carnivores that surrounded the 
incipient humans necessitated quick physical movement as well as mental 
alertness, strategy and foresight. This favoured the invention of both 
tools and speech. 

All ape-men had to become tool-users because their finger-nails and 
teeth were such as could not tear the hides and skins of animals they hunted 
for food in the open territory. Gradually tools of increasing variety and 
complexity were discovered. On the one hand, speech enlarged the brain 
and mental possibilities and stimulated the invention of tools. On the 
other hand, an elaborate tradition of tools of complex range and variety 
was correlated with human speech. Both tools and speech made human 
hunting on a large scale possible. 

Hunting and Human Evolution 

The hunting mode of life in the grass lands with a variegated supply 
of small and large grazing mammals as game resulted in a larger com- 
munity through a more abundant food supply, and fostered an intimate 
and intelligent interplay of communication and cooperation, correlated 
with an increase of population. Speech grew into language in an atmos- 
phere of consensus and accord between the leaders and the led in the 
hunting pack and between the parents and offspring in the family. The 
hunting pack could not continue the harem system of the apes. Mono- 
gamous mating, growth of psycho-biological inhibitions of sexual out- 

1 Human Evolution, Past and Future in Burnett, (Ed.): This is my Philosophy. 
* Washburn and Avis : Evolution of Human Behaviour in Roe and Simpson 
Behaviour and Evolution , p. 432. 


burst in the family group and care and solicitude for the young by both 
male and female parents were linked and established together and tended 
to spread. There was no future for those with whom cortical control of 
sex did not replace hormonal control, nor could repress strong emotional 
outbursts of anger, rage and aggressiveness. Not only the pugnacious, 
aggressive and uncooperative individuals but also those who could not 
make much of their wits and tools went hungry and could not reproduce 
nor survive. Among the living apes and monkeys who are all vegetarians 
in their forest-habitat, the adult males though they may direct food ex- 
peditions do not share the booty nor show division of labour within the 
troop. The ape-man's hunting ways introduced an elaborate economic 
cooperation, the practice of food-sharing and a social hierarchy. This 
transformed his impulses and habits as well as social life and relations. 
Primate terrestrial instincts were replaced by gregarious and migratory 
impulses and habits as the incipient humans herded together and traversed 
much wider areas than did the forest-dwelling apes. Their wider range of 
operations and greater mobility led to greater division of labour and social 
cohesion stabilizing social relations and organization. 

Social feelings and sentiments of a flexible and expansive rather than 
rigid instinctive kind waxed stronger and stronger, came to direct all funda- 
mental drives and crystallized themselves into enduring social values. To 
be human meant to be loving and tender, talkative and cooperative. The 
new ecological conditions and way of living in the grasslands fashioned a 
huxrtan nature out of the ape's nature. At the foundation of development 
of a puny creature, endowed only with brain and hands, lies the quality of 
social feeling which creates and maintains the most diverse patterns of 
social relations, values and organisation under different kinds of environ- 
mental pressure. 

Man retains several qualities of the ape such as strong family affection, 
playfulness and curiosity, but with the hunting ways and habits entrenched 
in his nature he has renounced the latter's fearfulness and helplessness. 
Perhaps he has an over-dose of anger, rage and aggressiveness which the 
hunting way of living for eons has built into his hereditary make-up. It 
is possible that the fusion between the timid, defensive and herbivorous 
ape and the combative, pugnacious and omnivorous ape-man is responsible 
for the ambivalence of fear and aggressiveness, tenderness and cruelty in 
human psychology. Clinical investigations have shown that overt aggres- 
sion and inner fear often go together, perhaps echoing man's mixed des- 
cent. No doubt the fusion between the aggressive and the tender feeling 
or behaviour is inadequate and imperfect in man who adopted a way of 
living far different from that of his vegetarian ancestors. 

The incipient humans though relatively vulnerable yet adopted pre- 
daceousness due to their carnivorous predilections in the grass-lands and 
plains that they invaded. They could roam in all directions, though not 


without fear and danger, and made tentative experiments in the family and 
the social organisation, responding in novel ways to unfamiliar external 
conditions. Plasticity of responses and behaviour replaced the old rigi- 
dity, especially because the life of the incipient humans alternated between 
carnivorous aggression and fight in the hunting pack and protection and 
care of the young ones in the well-knit family group. Man is not predatory 
by instinct and long tradition. He took up hunting only in the later phase 
of his evolution, after the development of upright posture together with 
his invasion of the grass-lands where he could run for offence and defence. 
Accordingly, unlike bitch wolves, human mothers did not run with the 
hunting pack but tended their offspring in the cave-shelters. As much as 
the hunting ground, the "hearth and home" were the cradles of human 
psychology. Without the economic interdependence between man and 
woman and their offspring and the emotional interchange within the 
family there would have been no man. It was the family which tamed at 
once the male human beast's fierceness and aggressiveness so that he could 
bestow tenderness and affection on the children. It also curbed the hor- 
monally determined male lust or female heat so that the family did not 
split up due to chronic sexual contests and bickerings, and the subordinate 
males could cooperate with the parents in raising and training the young. 

Evolution of the Social Impulses 

The social affections had survival values in the evolution of early man 
who was selected and adopted to think, feel and behave as a social animal. 
Without his basic genetically determined social impulses with their com- 
plex interwoven strands of love, tenderness, foresight, compassion and 
altruism, neither the compact stable family could be founded, nor the 
cooperation of individuals in clan, tribe and community for offence, defence 
and food-acquisition, nor again the perpetuation of accumulated tradition 
were possible. Constant selection favoured the propagation of the social 
impulses and the modification of ego-centric impulses in the genetic system 
among larger groups and over longer periods of time than the individual 
and his life. The human animal came thus to be hereditarily endowed with 
a much larger measure of the social impulses than his ancestors and col- 
leagues, first in the family, then in the larger kinship group, and finally in 
the community and culture in ever-extending circles. Such psycho-social 
adaptation was the direct consequence of natural selection and evolution 
of heredity. 

Gregariousness, moderate size of population, and permanent social 
traditions were linked with one another, furthering more aggregation, 
better social organisation and more protection to individuals. Geneticists 
point out that evolution is rapid in any species distributed in partially 
isolated "demes" but is accelerated in moderate-sized rather than in very 



small "demes.' n The size of larger human inter-breeding communities 
such as clans, tribes and folks aided the selection of characters of smaller 
biological advantage and the stabilization of the genotype of the species. 
A large and homogeneous population sorts and sifts, and keeps under con- 
trol gene-variations so that these latter may be selectively advantageous. 
The continuity of the genotype and the stability of the social heritage must 
have aided each other during the evolution of man. Migration between the 
"demes" and occasional fusion of the "demes" maintained the genotype. 
It also furthered the processes of man's social integration, promoted collec- 
tive enterprise and adventure and improved his stock of tools, weapons 
and implements and ideas, values and symbols. With the improvement 
of habits of association and cooperation, leadership and obedience and 
general conformity to stereotyped patterns of behaviour, larger groups 
could be formed aided by language and enlarged kin sympathy. Gradually 
there developed not only a "consciousness of kind" within the tribe, folk 
and people, but also a stable heritage of tools, territory and traditions be- 
queathed from one generation to another the beginning of the human 

Tool and Human Evolution 

Man's ecolbgical hunting habits and use of tools dominated the latest 
phases of his evolution. The emergence of Homo sapiens was synchro- 
nous with the cycle of cold creeping out of the Arctic zone. A relatively 
hair-less, tropical animal as he was, he sorely needed shelter and clothing 
to carry him through the long winters. For this he found most serviceable 
his long, mobile and manipulating hand which wielded and made tools as 
well as spun and wove and constructed shelters. On the one hand, the 
ape-man's flexible, manufacturing hand, freed from use in locomotion, 
favoured the development of his brain and central nervous system. On 
the other hand, his brain governed the use of his hand in complicated 
movements within sight of his exploring and scrutinising eyes, and con- 
stituted him not only a tool-using but also a tool-making and tool-changing 
animal. The ape became a tool-user before he became a man. 

Australopithecus, sometimes called Near Man of Bechuanaland and 
Transvaal, had brains no larger than those of chimpanzees or much exceed- 
ing those of gorillas though he could walk on two legs in the grassy open 
country, and had teeth more closely resembling those of men than apes and 
made tools. It is probable that when the anthropo-hominids came down from 
the trees, and became scavengers and hunters their legs and jaws evolved 
in advance of their brains and that they learnt to use and make tools for 
defence against the carnivores. According to Leakey, tool-using man 

1 Carter, Animal Evolution, and The Theory of Evolution and the Evolution of Man 
in Kroeber, Anthropology Today ; p. 340. 


originated in Africa, the fossil remains of the earliest man being found by him 
recently in Tanganyika where he lived 700,000 years ago. (Zinjanthropus) 

Tool-making, which evolved as a social heritage when the hunters 
lived in close cooperating groups, must have stimulated increase in brain 
size and development of the nervous system the transition from the 
small-brained Australopithecus (skull-capacity, 600 c.c.) to the larger brained 
Pithecanthropus (skull-capacity, 775 to 900 c.c.) and then from Pithecan- 
thropus to the even larger-brained Homo sapiens (skull capacity, 770 to 2000 
c.c.). Homo rhodesiensis, found in Rhodesia, made tools by grinding or ham- 
mer dressing, rather skilled and advanced techniques. Pithecanthropus found 
in Java (900 c.c.) and China (1300 c.c.) who shows a greater admixture of 
the traits of apes and modern men than the former, used tools made of 
quartz a difficult though not efficient material. Homo neanderthalensis who 
flourished in western and southern Europe about one hundred and 
fifty thousand years ago was also homo but not yet sapiens. He showed a 
definite advance over Pithecanthropus, but the gulf between him and Homo 
sapiens was also yawning. Both Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens, 
two ultimately distinct forms of the human species, must have sprung 
from the genus Pithecanthropus. The Rhodesian man and Solo man from Java 
are regarded as regional end products ofthePitkecantbropus stage, having many 
common features both of Neanderthal and Sapiens variety, both early and late. 
About fifty to hundred thousand years ago Homo sapiens emerged and domi- 
nated everywhere displacing Western Neanderthaler, Solo man and Rhode- 
sian man. Due to his sensitive and adaptable body and mind, use of a 
large variety of tools and capacity for collective action, Homo sapiens could 
easily exterminate all non-sapiens populations and endure successfully the 
rigours of climatic oscillations of the last glaciation. Homo sapiens showed 
a decisive mastery of the entire world environment. The distinguished 
paleontologist Chardin after his life-long study of fossil men concludes: 
"Judging by the impressive and constantly increasing mass of old Paleolithic 
industries which is being continuously unearthed in Central and South 
Africa, it appears very possible that the Dark Continent will be recognised 
"tomorrow" as the main laboratory in which man, after having been 
first formed as Homo, finally succeeded in reaching the level of Homo 
sapiens just before the dawn of the Upper Paleolithic times.'^ The physical 
anthropologist asks, tools or brains, which came first ? The answer, in view 
of the discovery of the Sterkfontein accumulation of tools made by the 
pigmy and small-brained Australopithecines in South Africa, is that perhaps 
tools preceded brains. 2 They were able to discover and use tools though 
having the brain size of the apes. Their jaws, limbs and pelvis, however, 
showed more human than anthropoid features. 

1 The Idea of Fossil Man, Kroeber (Ed.) : Anthropology Today. 

2 Kenneth Oakley, The Listener ,Dec. 19, 1959. 


Modern palaeo-anthropology is now reexamining the various hominid 
fossil evidences now available from the beginning of the studies of human 
evolution. The data of the construction of tools, ceremonial burial of the 
dead, symbolic representation of animal or fossil types, control of fire 
and organisation of certain activities on a communal basis suggest that by 
the middle and late Pleistocene period a number of fossil forms, many 
of whom were not entirely human in structure, acquired a regular capacity 
for conceptual or "reflective" thinking and behaviour and use of signs and 
symbols. Thus some fossil hominids could develop and bequeath an ex- 
ternal social heritage, similar to that otHowo sapiens indisputable evidence 
of the beginning of the transformation from ape nature to human nature. 1 
A human nature as well as a human structure are co-products of evolutionary 
processes under divergent ecological conditions. 

The Adaptability of Human Nature and Behaviour 

Man's fitness in the long selective process through which he has evolved 
has depended as much upon his large and fine brain as upon his whole human 
nature fashioned early by the use of tools as well as by true speech and 
symbolic representation. His body and mind arc so constituted that he 
thinks, feels and acts with the whole of his brain, and with all his tissues 
and organs which achieve extensions and enlargements in his equipment 
of tools. Human nature grows as a whole. Tools, speech and long- 
term social relations add new components to it. As the early humans 
hunted, conversed and played together, drew cave-p?intings and manipu- 
lated tools, their brains expanded forwards. And with mental develop- 
ment they could use and change more tools, achieve more marked control 
over environmental conditions, and inhibit instinctive and emotional reac- 
tions more effectively for harmonious social living. Human nature and 
behaviour became more plastic, adaptable and learned, and this had obvi- 
ously greater survival value. With the establishment of learning capacity 
and behaviour human evolution took the form of the development and 
transmission of the social heritage rather than of further genetic change and 
elaboration of instinctive patterns. Man now developed and transmitted 
true traditions of various types of non-biological or symbolic activity that 
had no organic purpose or direction. His greater adaptability, sociability, 
logical thinking and educability, which are primarily due to his prolonged 
infancy; his richer and stabler emotional life,jwhich springs from the primate 
interdependence of woman, chiJd and man; and his symbol-making on the 
basis of words, images and gestures, which is both the cause and effect of 
his permanent social heritage, markedly differentiated him from his nearest 
simian kith and kin. -But these were all slow growths and products of his 

1 T.R. Williams : The Evolution of a Human Nature, Philosophy of Science, January 
1959; Boule, Marcellin and Vallois : Fossil Man. 


larger, heavier and finer brain. It was the combination of these mental 
strands that ushered in a truly human nature a distinctive human way of 
knowing, feeling and behaving, based on a genetically determined dis- 
position for symbolisation. 

Man's upright position, stereoscopic colour-vision, omnivorous diet 
and intellectual curiosity, coupled with his movement far and wide in 
the grass-lands and plains, stimulate an intelligent interest in things and 
happenings, and develop an ever-expanding world-perspective. These 
are correlated not only with his complex traditions of tools and techniques 
which subserve his biological and economic adaptations, but also with an 
elaborate tradition of words, signs and symbols achieving non-biological 
or symbolic values and behaviour. 

Rudimentary Values and Symbolic Behaviour among the Higher Apes 

Recent studies and experiments among the higher anthropoids show 
that they can create, and are guided by rudimentary values and symbols. 
They collect all kinds of objects, especially attractive ones, and carry them 
in their arm-pits as they walk about. This is an inchoate perception of 
''aesthetic" value. In their collective food-quest, migration, offence and 
defence chimpanzees and howler monkeys are governed by a well-defined 
system of serial subordination dominance roles and statuses, grounded 
in acquired but inarticulate value experiences with a multitude of variations 
and shadings according to ecological and social conditions. They show 
a crude and viable, though not a stable and delicate balanced system of 
values, as postulated by Nissen. The latter apparently holds that, like 
men, chimpanzees have many values only indirectly related to primary needs, 
as food, sex and knowledge. 1 

With inchoate, undifferentiated and rudimentary values are linked 
rudimentary symbolic acts. The higher apes show fairly well-defined 
gestures of abasement, humiliation and 'sense of guilt' as they are caught 
by the leader of a band or troop in acts of encroachment upon sexual rights 
and accept punishment. Punishment is often symbolic in the sense that 
instead of inflicting serious injury the leader merely nips him painfully. 
In the division of food the male chimpanzee would show deference to his 
female companion even after she is pregnant and is not available sexually. 
Crawford mentions chimpanzees summoning one another by means of self- 
initiated gestures such as gentle taps on the shoulder. When shoulder 
taps become insufficient or slow in producing cooperation they would pull 
or act forcibly. 2 The chimpanzee can, therefore, use gestures symbolically, 
not as signs of action but as meaningful and directive cues. He can even 

1 Problems of Mental Evolution in the Primates in Gavan : The Non-human Primates 
and Human Evolution. 

2 The Cooperative Solving of Problems by Young Chimpanzees, Comparative Psycho- 
logical Monographs \ Vol. XIV, 2. 


construct some kind of a self-image as he indulges in phantasy-making and 
plays with what appears to be an imaginary pull-toy which is towed around 
an imaginary string. 1 In their play and teasing behaviour, Hebb and 
Thompson stress, primates show a capacity for abstraction and conceptuali- 
sation freed from the immediate situation. They observe : "The aggres- 
sive pretences that mask aggression, so evident in the chimpanzees, show an 
ability to separate a certain type of vocalisation of gesture from particular 
emotional states." 2 

Finally, territoriality is well developed among primates. A complex 
system of territorial behaviour is learned by them that reinforces monoga- 
mous habits and dominance roles and statuses, integrate bands or hordes 
within a certain area, and provide psychological and social advantages by 
favourably affecting goals and rudimentary values as well as dynamic actions 
and interactions many of which are acquired. 

But even the natural cousins of man, due to their incapacity for abstrac- 
tion and objectivisation of the symbolic processes of the mind as well as 
the absence of speech, cannot use sounds and gestures symbolically for 
communication except in a very limited way and in a small group. 3 Nor 
can they have any sense of self-awareness, self-valuation and self-transcen- 
denc. These latter enter into the core of the human personality structure. 
Values and meanings can develop only with the capacity of the mind for 
conceptual processes and the use and manipulation of symbols in speech, 
the two being linked with each other in mental and behavioural evolution. 
Only man can communicate his complex inner worlci through his speech, 
and share meanings, values and purposes with fellowmen separated by 
time and space through the symbol complex. He develops, therefore, 
a new dimension of psycho-biological adaptation, and his adaptation is to 
a world that is unlimited psychologically. Only rudimentary and frag- 
mented self-awareness and values are discernible among the apes. 4 Self- 
cognition, self-valuation and self-transcendence are unique in man due to 
the enlarging role of his central cortical function, and become increasingly 
significant in the general evolutionary trend. Imagination, intuition, and 
valuation and symbolic intellectual, aesthetic and religious response to the 
cosmos as a whole constantly enrich man's cosmos-view and enable him 
to be at home with the cosmos. A symbolic world of non-biological ideas, 
values and experiences is super-imposed upon his biological and economic 
world, and changes altogether his psychology and dimension of living and 

1 Hayes : The Apes in Our House. 

2 The Social Significance of Animal Studies in Lindzey : Handbook of Social P sychology . 

3 See also Hall'owell : Self, Society and Culture in Sol Tax (Ed.): The Evolution of 
Man, pp. 351-354. 

* See also Thompson : Social Behaviour in Roe and Simpson ; fyhav'wr and Evolution^ 
pp. 293-294. 


Human Adaptation, Essentially Symbolic 

Man is unique among the animals in his capacity for associating certain 
tags, signs or symbols with natural objects, events, behaviour, values and 
experiences. Furthermore, he has evolved certain cognate or subsidiary 
dispositions viz., of making use of his voice to initiate or play with sounds 
of his own and of the world around him, and of his gestures and movements 
for reproducing the recurrent rhythms of nature and generally exploring, 
manipulating and controlling sounds, lines, surfaces, colours and tones of 
the environment for his sensory and motor satisfactions. On these super- 
animal sensory and motor ranges of experience is reared the rich and vast 
super-structure of his aesthetic values and symbolic thought and living wbich 
indicate the potentials of a true human nature. From the dawn of human 
evolution up till the present, man's extra-organic symbolic complex of 
devices and appurtenances, abstractions and concepts integrated into values 
beliefs and traditions, supplement his physiological equipment and be- 
haviour, and undoubtedly play the major role in accelerating and directing 
its trend. Such mechanisms of pre-adaptation and directiveness are some- 
times called "neurobiotaxis" and are favoured by natural selection and the 
evolution of heredity. 

The evolution of mind and the evolution of society and values, mutually 
reacting on each other through the symbolic medium and procedure, and 
the selection of the environment by the group, community or genotype 
gradually develop a well-nigh common human nature, with similar gene- 
tically determined modes of response to internal needs and external stimuli. 
In spite of differences in their patterns and combinations, there are common 
inherited racial instincts of man. A human nature is both genetically and 
culturally determined. 

As anticipatory and directive symbols and values emerge in man, 
these not only transform his nature and proclivities, but also become a 
part of his genetic heritage. Due to natural selection, he develops pre- 
dispositions to stable and dependable sets of symbols, values and traditions 
in his social milieu, full of conflicts and hazards. Symbols, values and 
traditions are internalised as his conscience, and also conserved and orga- 
nised in his external cultural inheritance that plays a more significant role 
in promoting his survival and progress than his genetic inheritance. As 
values are learned, acquired and transmitted through education and sociali- 
sation, these foster and guide an ever larger and more complex range of 
cooperative activities, building up and integrating the social community. 
Man's predilection for stable and shared values, and his capacity for their 
intelligent manipulation and transformation by association establish and 
maintain enlarged and intensified communion and cooperation in society, 
and promote the extension and survival of his group that comes ever more 
to comprise mankind-as-a whole. 


Person Values and Society are inseparable, and develop together 
through a ceaseless dynamic interchange, being different facets of the general 
evolutionary trend. Values, as these have their primacy for man ;subjec- 
tively and their objective utility in the survival, expansion and total well- 
being of the human community, leap beyond biological and social oppor- 
tunistic ends. The differentiation between instrumental and intrinsic 
ends and values is crucial in the long-term evolution of mankind. In his 
constant endeavours to attain and promote intrinsic and transcendent values 
man remoulds his own nature and remakes society. He seeks to establish 
an ever greater and richer harmony with the cosmos-as-a whole, constantly 
recreating what he has learned, changing his modes of social adaptation and 
reorganising and achieving his potentialities. This is the only way of 
his evolution. 



Homo's Brain and Retardation 

The human child's long infancy and slow somatic, mental and be- 
havioural growth were crucial for the emergence and development of a 
human nature. It is man's uniquely long infancy, prolonged childhood 
and youth and delayed puberty which have been an indispensable psycho- 
biological basis of Homo's development and individualization. For the 
sake of the largeness of brain-size his infancy is extended, puberty delayed 
and youth and life as a whole lengthened. Of all mammals, he shows the 
longest period of both pre-natal and post-natal helplessness and dependence 
of which the bio-psychological and social significance is being just disco- 
vered. 1 Human mind, society and values are all born of human retardation, 
and prolongation of human dependence, nursing and immaturity beyond 
natural limits. 

The improvement of the size of the brain had been correlated with 
the slackening of its rate of growth and the prolongation of childhood 
in the natural history of the primates. The embryologist Berrill points 
out that man's infancy is not only projected into his later life but he carries 
his pre-natal condition through into childhood. This applies to both his 
hairlessness and the retarded development of his brain. Shortly before 
birth the embryo of the chimpanzee shows almost a bare skin but in the 
final month it has a hairy development and is born a typically hairy animal. 
The human embryo sheds at birth most of the original fine coat of hair all 
over. A small and decidedly foetal type of face and a much thinner skull 
are also consequences of the brain's expansion in the growing embryo. 
These are as pre-natal or foetal features as the hairless skin leaving the brain 
region largest in the embryo resulting from the squeezing of initial space. 
Other characters in which man resembles the foetal rather than the adult 
mammal are the late closure of the sutures of his skull, the posture of his 
head, the form of the ear shell and the supposition of the jaw under the 
forehead. Man is unique in retaining in his adult body many pre-natal or 
foetal features which constitute the basis of his being human. 

First, man has lost most of his hair, according to Berrill, as an inci- 
dental accompaniment of his brain expansion, yet to some extent part of 
this expansion comes directly from the loss of body hair. Second, the 

1 Countt : This is Rase; also Keith : A New Theory of Human Evolution. 


large size of the brain is promoted by the relative reduction of the area left 
for the face and the bony substance of the skull in the embryo and is res- 
tricted only by the pelvic opening of the mother. Due to the limitation 
imposed by the skeleton of the mother much of the growth of the human 
brain takes place at a late stage of foetal growth and is also postponed until 
after birth. The study of pre-natal human behaviour by Hooker and 
Herrick shows that it is only at fourteen weeks of foetal life the higher 
integrating apparatus of the thalamus and perhaps also the thalamo-cortical 
connections reach a stage of differentiation marking the beginning of func- 
tional capacity. Herrick observes : "These higher levels of the brain 
mature much later than do those of lower brain stem and the complication 
of their internal structure continues for many years after birth probably 
as long as learning capacity lasts." 1 The sequence of development of the 
cortical associational tissues which are the last to become functional is not 
yet fully known. After the birth of the human child the prolonged period 
of careful nursing, protection, sleep and rest enables the brain and the or- 
ganised system of nervous elements to develop with ever-increasing in- 
tricacy and subtlety of neural connections, together with the branching of 
the nerve-fibres and the elongation of the branches. Retardation facilitates 
the development of the apparatus of nervous integration, including learning 
capacity and behaviour. The largest and finest brains belong to those 
human infants with their greatest growth yet to come. "Such infants," 
remarks Berrill, "are inevitably those that are most infantile at birth using 
the term in its literal and complimentary sense." 

Physiologically speaking, the lengthening out of growth of the body 
permitted an enhanced and a more complex and adaptive brain development. 
Man's largeness, nakedness and immaturity at the time of birth are correlated 
with both a large brain size as well as the prolongation of the later phases 
of brain elaboration, fineness and sensitiveness. Kummer shows that the 
human skull cannot be considered shnply as a product of "foetalization 
of the anthropoid skull. Rather it is differentiation in another direction, 
owing to the increase in size of the brain and the neurocranium." 2 Berrill 
observes : "Inasmuch as a highly intelligent brain must be both fairly 
large and decidedly adaptable, the longer the delay in attaining the final 
state the better the brain will be. There has been as much incentive to 
prolong the later phases of brain growth and differentiation as there has been 
to grow one larger and larger." 3 

Comparative Retardation in Man and Ape 

We already see a retardation of development in the case of the apes 

1 The Evolution of Human Nature, pp. 310. 

8 Quoted in Bertalanffy : A Biologist Looks at Human Nature, The Scientific Monthly, 

8 Berrill : Man's Emerging Mind, pp. 115-118. 


a longer period of gestation as well as of childhood as compared with other 
mammals. Not only is the number of offspring reduced, but the period 
of their dependency and nursing prolonged in the case of all primates. 
Man's retardation is much more marked than even in the case of latter. 
The slowing down of the development of higher mammals and in particular 
of the apes and man is called ' 'retardation" by the Dutch biologist Bolk. 

While man's development from ovum to birth requires about 280 
days, the same development in the chimpanzee takes only 251 days. While 
the period of human pregnancy is about 266 days, the period of gestation 
for the chimpanzee is 231 days and for the lower monkeys between 150 
and 1 60 days. Schultz estimates that the duration of post-natal growth in 
man is 27 times the pre-natal growth, whereas in the macaque, for instance, 
it is only 15 times greater than the pre-natal growth; for the chimpanzee it 
is 15.7 times. 1 * 1 Hooton comparing the infantile situations of higher apes 
and men also points out that man grows very much more slowly than the 
apes and that growth takes place in the chimpanzee and orangutan at a 
moderate rate until about the seventh or eighth year when the apes begin 
their pre-adolescent spurts. He observes : "With the further prolongation 
of foetal development, the number of offspring produced at birth is still 
further diminished, because the continued intra-uterine growth of the 
foetus demands more and more space in the maternal womb, the expansion 
of which is strictly limited. The long pre-natal period and the protracted 
helpless infancy of man and the anthropoid apes are pre-requisites for the 
ultimately high development of the nervous system and of the mental 
powers of these families." 2 The inferiority of man's constitution and the 
retardation of his growth permitted the conjunction of several factors and 
trends that interacting with one another contribute to the individualization 
of man and the uniqueness of his goals, values and inter-personal behaviour. 
Retardation and Human Variability and Educability 

First, the slow post-natal development permits the growth and rami- 
fication of man's intricate, complex and plastic brain and nervous system. 
The evolution of the human mind is now attributed by many biologists, 
neurologists and anthropologists to the law of "retardation", "foetalization" 
or "neoteny," in Bolk's expressions. In the course of evolution the learn- 
ing period of apes, ape-men and men underwent a slackening in rate and 
an extension in time. The learning period of a juvenile chimpanzee lasts 
only about one year. During this period the juvenile ape develops men- 
tally much more quickly than the human child of the same age. Man 
shows the capacity for educability right into the adolescent and adult phases 
of development. This is correlated with the fact that the human brain 

1 Quoted in Muensterberger : On the Biopsychological Determinants of Social 
Life in Psychology and Social Sciences, Vol. IV, p. 18. 

2 Up From The Ape, p. 264; Compare also Howells : Mankind So Far. 


continues to grow and develop throughout the first two decades of life. 
Ashley Montagu observes : "At birth the human brain is only 23 per cent 
of its adult size, and by the end of the first year the human infant has achiev- 
ed 5 5 per cent of its total brain growth; by the end of the third year some 83 
per cent. In the great apes the major part of the growth is achieved with- 
in the first year. In the rhesus monkey and in the gibbon 70 per cent of 
the brain growth has been achieved by birth, and the remainder is completed 
within the first six months. In the great apes the active period of brain 
growth occurs during the first eleven months, and in man during the first 
thirty-six months. Complete growth of the brain in man is not achieved 
until the end of the second decade of life." 1 Arthur Keith points out that 
in this prolongation of cerebral growth and development we see an impor- 
tant, "if not the most important, feature of human evolution viz. the time 
taken to assemble and to organize the myriads of nerve cells and of nerve 
tracts which enter into the structure of man's brain." McDougall suggests 
that the time required for the nervous system to develop may be as impor- 
tant as the total complexity achieved. The improvement in both size and 
complexity of the human brain in which are rooted man's mental capacities 
is, accordingly, what the biologists such as L. Bolkand G. R. de Beer call 
a "neotenous" phenomenon. 

Secondly, this accounts not only for man's superior intellectual and 
learning capacities, but also for the flexibility of human nature, marked by 
a much greater range, subtlety and variability of his impulses, needs and 
values than in the case of his nearest animal colleagues. Rensch shows 
that changes in the architecture of the human brain provide cerebral areas 
that can be used for higher functions. It also leads to histological changes 
and possibly differences in view of instinctive and learning behaviour. 
Man alone possesses the ventral region of the frontal lobe where is loca- 
ilzed the motor speech centre connected with his verbal and symbolic capa- 
cities. Both the symbolic functions of the brain and the elaboration and 
refinement of its association, scanning and feed-back functions comprise 
qualitative changes that distinguish the human from the ape mind with 
its increased adjustibility and educability. Gardner Murphy remarks : 
"The longer the period of immaturity, the period during which the organism 
is plastic, the greater the number of values it can form, the more complex 
the hierarchies it can establish in both its intellectual and its emotional 
life, the greater its opporutnity for experimentation." 2 

Thirdly, we encounter greater range, complexity and effectiveness of 
social conditioning and learning as well as of means of social control in man 
that are linked with the time curve of his behavioural development dif- 
fering strikingly from that of other mammals. The latter run swiftly 

1 Anthropology and Human Nature, pp. 325-326. 

2 Personality, p. 284. 


through the period of their somatic and behavioural growth and soon 
their sexual maturity is reached. Alex Comfort thus contrasts man and 
other mammals in respect of their patterns of early growth : "Man is born 
helpless like a kitten; he grows at about a typical rate for a warm-blooded 
animal up to the age of four or so. If he followed the same programme 
as a sheep or puppy, then allowing for the different time-scale he would be 
sexually mature and fully independent at about nine years old* But instead 
his growth becomes slower, and a whole extra period of delayed growth 
and dependence on the mother is put into the growth curve, between the 
ages, roughly speaking, of four and twelve. Then the tempo suddenly 
quickens, growth and development become rapid, and adolescence leads 
on to sexual maturity." A full-grown human still in some respects resembles 
more a baby ape than a grown-up gorilla. According to Cuenot he can 
be considered a gorilla foetus whose development and growth have been 
greatly retarded. The characteristic shape of man's growth curve gives 
him his uniquely long periods of childhood and youth, and the opportunity 
for a much longer period of learning and conditioning which is the basis 
of his distinctive family pattern which is the basis of his social organisation, 
mental development, psycho-social adjustment and acquisition and ex- 
perience of values. Bertalanffy considers this as an indispensable pre- 
requisite and basis of human behaviour and culture. 1 Socialisation, educa- 
tion or conceptual thinking in the human species evolve with "domesti- 
cation" and the increased dependence of the child on the family. These 
are psycho-biologically rooted in the longer duration of his sexual immaturity 
and dependence on the mother as well as his life-span than in the case of 
any other mammal. Youthfulness with associated joy, vigour and intensity 
of life distinguishes man from the higher apes. Human mind and values 
have improved as much as have the youthful time, freshness and zest of 
the life of the individual. The next step in human evolution is to have 
a longer and more thorough-going youthfulness, gusto and adventur- 
ousness in mind and spirit. 
Childhood and Human Evolution and Behaviour 

Fourthly, the prolonged infancy leads to the intensity of the mother- 
child relationship whence stems the entire pattern of man's inter-personal 
relationships and values. It is significant that the human baby needs and 
obtains extensive paternal care at a time when his sensory and neural equip- 
ment is well completed. This is a situation which is not encountered in the 
animal kingdom, and has important mental and social consequences. The 
parent's training is imprinted on the child's nervous system that being 
less differentiated and less diversified than in maturity invests parental 
values with an absolute, blind and compulsive character (the Freudian super- 

1 A Biologist Looks at Human Nature, The Scientific Monthly, Vol. 82, 1956. 


ego) and relegates their opposite tendencies into the unconscious (repres- 
sion). Here we have the biological root of the resolution of value con- 
flicts by the mechanisms of man's conscience at the unconscious level. For 
man whose impulses, needs and values are far more numerous and com- 
petitive than in animal, the mechanisms of interiorisation of parental and 
social values and of repression of undesirable impulses, dispositions and 
trends of behaviour in the unconscious comprise an important pre-requisite 
of his mental and social development. The compulsive submission to certain 
values conceived in absolute terms not only prevents the waste of psychic 
energy of the infantile self due to inner antagonisms that are habitual with 
it but effects socialisation that obtains impulsion from both the conscious 
and unconscious forces of the mind. a Karen Stephen remarks that it is 
"the super-ego's fantastic slapdash character (that) has rendered man's 
evolution so miserably slow and full of set-backs." 2 There is no doubt, 
however, that the tyrannical and unadapted nature of the child's conscience 
is as important an aid to his mental and social adaptation and moral progress 
as the "harness" with which he is sometime taught to walk. 

Fifthly, with prolonged infancy and dependency the play period is 
automatically extended in duration. According to Gross, play has impor- 
tant survival values for a species inasmuch as it trains the young ones 
for the strenuous tasks of adulthood. In the human species, the child's 
curiosity, play and delight in experiment with its trials and errors are seen 
to persist throughout life, valuable traits for his mental advancement and 
control over the environment. Play and make -belief are deliberately 
cultivated and fostered in the environment of the family, the kinship 
group and the larger society, eliciting and stimulating not only his intelli- 
gence and social affections but also his freedom and creativeness. Play 
with its collective zest, excitement and irresponsibility is also a direct in- 
centive to symbolic expression, construction and communication. Any 
kind of spontaneous activity detached from the biological context builds 
up the symbolic pattern of behaviour on which the entire social tradition and 
culture are based. Protection from biological pressure together with 
disengagement and play in infancy, childhood and youth made man the 
symbol-maker and user the artificer of the arts of culture and lifted his 
learning ability and behaviour to a new dimension. In the dramatisations 
of childhood and youth he found opportunities not only to learn, explore 
and experiment in terms of non-biological goals and values, but also to 
integrate present and past values and experiences, imagine possible and 
impossible situations and values and indulge in forward-oriented visions, 
dreams and reveries. The acquisition of both practical skills and techniques 
and works of imagination and art was possible, due to the release of child- 

1 Mukerjee, The Dynamics of Morals. 

8 Waddington, Science and Ethics; and Flugel : Man t Morals and Society, p. 260. 



hood and youth from the tensions of competition and struggle, greatly 
aiding and accelerating the development of culture. Phantasy, myth and 
vision detached man from the external world, revealed his inner nature 
and projected into the external world vivid images from the unconscious 
angels, gods and demons which led him in the direction of self-actualisation 
and self-transcendence. 

Sixthly, the production of one human offspring at birth instead of 
several and the prolongation of its helpless period interacting with each 
other favoured the development of tenderness in the individual and its 
evolution in the race. Man's prolonged childhood greatly strengthened 
the affective ties between parents, child and siblings. It encouraged soli- 
citude and care and made education more important by making it longer 
and lasting. Parental tenderness and training are linked with each other 
in the "individualization" of man. Yerkes in his remarkable studies of 
mental life of the primate has shown how some of the great apes who have 
a gestation period of at least 7 months and wean their children at about 
four months show gentleness and care almost on the human level.i 1 The 
orang and the chimpanzee mothers are known to aid their offspring to walk 
and climb, refrain from doing certain things and encourage them at a later 
stage of development to do these. Yerkes and Yerkes observe that to 
"refrain from the use of such terms as educate, teach, train, merely be- 
cause the subject is infra-human would seem indefensible, since as a fact 
the chimpanzee mother, apparently with definite intent, encourages and in 
many ways aids her infant to achieve locomotor independence to walk, 
climb and eventually to run about and play in a variety of ways and freely." 2 
Not before gentleness and solicitude were firmly imprinted on the mental 
make-up of the human species, teaching and learning could make much head- 

Permanent Sexuality and Stability of the Human Family 

The family becomes an enduring and universal institution for the 
human species due to the above co-acting psycho-biological factors and 
trends. To these should be added another formative trend, viz. the dis- 
continuance of the periodicity of human sexual behaviour in striking con- 
trast with other mammals. Man has a continuous sex life unlike most 
mammals. He experiences sexual desire in all seasons, and also takes a 
long time to reach a period of non-reproductive "post-maturity." All 
the anthropoids tend towards non-seasonal and active sexuality. Accord- 
ing to Yerkes, the transition from a seasonal period of heat to an annual 
menstrual cycle in the female and a trend of the male's continuous sexual 

1 Social Behaviour in Infra-human Primates : A Handbook of Social Psychology > pp. 973- 

a lbid. p. 1013. 


ardour show the following order : gibbon, orangutan, chimpanzee and 
gorilla, man representing the anthropoid climax. 

Beach describing the evolutionary changes in the physiological control 
of mating behaviour in mammals shows the progressive phylogenetic 
decrease in the importance of ovarian secretions to sexual drives in female 
mammals and suggests that this change in apes and men is directly related 
to the increasing contributions made by the cortex and the higher nervous 
mechanisms. 1 Man is unique as both a hyper-sexual and sex-tormented 
animal, whose period of sexual growth and maturation relatively to his 
total life span is longer than that of the anthropoids. His permanent 
sexuality which is a basic factor in his total mental evolution comes inade- 
quately and precariously under the control of his cortical system. Exces- 
sive and continuous sexuality and potentially maladaptive sexual behaviour 
are uniquely associated with each other in man, bearing evidence perhaps 
of genetic transitional processes in his life-history. 

Klaatsch suggested long ago that the permanent sexuality of man 
has brought about the development of the permanent breast as an impor- 
tant human secondary sexual characteristic. Both these, the permanent 
breast which is not visible in the anthropoids and enhanced sexuality, are 
the organic roots of inter-personal interest of the humankind. 2 Secondary 
sexual characteristics have developed much more in the human species than 
in any other animal. In no species of apes and monkeys do we come 
across the permanent breast and wide pelvis as m the human female. Both 
?hese characteristics indicate her capacity for reproduction and care for the 
offspring. The pelvic dimorphism of the human female is related to the 
large cranium of the infant and also its bodily immaturity; while her per- 
manent breast is the index of its increased dependence and nurture by the 
mother. The smoothness, plumpness and suppleness of the female body 
and the permanence and firmness of the female breasts are some of the 
striking results of the domestication of the human mammal, and the change 
from forest life. The hairlessness, particularly in woman, facilitated the 
pleasurable stimulation from intimate bodily contact with both mate and 
offspring. Both the tender attachment between man and woman and the 
loving care and protection of the child grew out of the happy physical 
association. Freedman and Roe observe : "As in some other mammals, 
man's sexual arousal is not confined to his genitalia but is intensified and 
dispersed over his body to orifices, breasts and the skin surface. Sight, 
smell, hearing, tactile feeling and taste may serve as transmitters of stimuli 
for sexual excitement. This spread and augmentation of erotic excitants 
is important in man's survival as a species and, as psycho-analysis has shown, 

1 The Psychological Review, 44. 

8 Weston La Barre, The Human Animal, pp. 104-108. 


in the development of his personality." 1 Sexual stimulation and play, short 
of copulation, are far more significant forms of sexual activity in man than 
in the case of any other animal. These are based on the subtle and com- 
plex display of secondary sexual characteristics that arouse erotic attrac- 
tiveness of man and woman which is then subtly blended and integrated 
with the pattern of reciprocal tenderness and attachment that aids the 
attainment of full sexual development. In the humankind woman's 
breasts and lips are cherished instruments of sexual love and protective- 
ness that eclipse the primate intimacy and attachment. Woman's bosoms 
that are not directly connected with the sexual act comprise the most pro- 
minent and delicate secondary region of love in her body and have acquired 
a strong love and aesthetic value rather than sex appeal for man even from 
his adolescence. Human culture makes these the symbols of feminine 
loveliness and protectiveness the dual sources of durable marital attachment 
portrayed and idealized in art and literature. 2 

The Ro/e of Sexual Dimorphism in Human Hvolntion 

In the first place, man's permanent or non-seasonal sexuality means 
hyper-sexual activity which far over-reaches his needs of procreation. 
Hyper-sexual man procreates far beyond the limits of his subsistence. 
Secondly, the increased sexual dimorphism in the human species is corre- 
lated not only with the increased closeness of the child-mother bond, but 
also with heightened interpersonal bond between the sexes. Both among 
anthropoids and humans sexual and social behaviour intermingles. Accord- 
ing to Kohler, sexuality among the chimpanzees serves social rather than 
mere reproductive needs. He observes: "The sexuality of two chim- 
panzees is as it were less sexual than that of the civilized human being. 
Often when two chimpanzees meet one another, they seem to "sketch," 
or indicate, movements, which can hardly be classed definitely under either 
the category of joyous or cordial welcome, or sexual intimacy." 3 This is 
of great import for both anthropoid and human mental evolution. Sex 
in the human species has multi-dimensional functions and values, viz. the 
biologic function and value of procreation, the socio-cultural function and 
value of recreation, and the aesthetic and spiritual function and value of 
communication and communion. The multi-dimensionality of goals and 
functions of human sex or its independence of the original biologic goal 
and function of procreation are due to the biologic fact of man's retardation 
his prolonged infancy and childhood and ^delayed puberty. According 
to De Beer the human ovary reaches its full size at the age of about five 
and this is about the time of sexual maturity of the apes and presumably 

1 Evolution and Human Behaviour in Roe and Simpson (Ed.) Behaviour and Evolution 
p. 467. 

a 'Mukerjee, Tto Horizon of Marriage, p. 47. 
8 Kohler, The Mentality of Apes t p. 303. 



of man's ancestors. The human body is, however, not ready for the repro- 
ductive gland to function until several years later. The retardation is due 
to the action of hormones which play an important part in regulating the 
speed of development. 1 In man there is an activation of sex hormones 
in the pre-natal stage, but from birth to puberty sexual activity is latent or 
quiescent with pre-genital rather than genital instinctual aims. This has 
introduced various peculiarities in human sexual strivings and goals. It 
was the genius of Freud to discover and expound the psychological and 
social repercussions of the interruption of libidinal development of the 
human child by the "latency" period connected with the biological fact of 
his prolonged dependence and never fully outgrown infantile way of 
life. The complex sexuality of adult man and woman is now found by 
the Freudian school to be derived from a number of component tendencies, 
more or less independent, that are present in the infant and that undergo 
a process of normal structuring and development. 2 From the age of five 
when the "latency" period occurs to puberty, the sensual components of 
the libidinal hierarchy become inoperative. These are reactivised at puberty 
defined as the stage of "genital primacy" constituting the maturation of 
sexual behaviour that hides many component tendencies of childhood. 
These not only underlie normal erotic satisfaction but exercise a most 
widespread influence in non-sexual behaviour. Imagination, phantasy 
and sentiment of the growing man play a dominant part in his very com- 
plicated and plastic sexual feelings and behaviour. The sexual dimorphism 
and disparate mental development of man and woman are related to the 
complex divergent sexual needs and values of each sex, whence stem 
idiosyncratic modes of sexual expression and play in both normal and 
abnormal aspects in human culture. 

The Civilizing of Sex 

The closeness of the emotional bond between woman and child and 
between man and woman are writ large in their physiques. Civilization is 
aided by biology that makes woman's breasts conspicuous, and yet not 
directly provocative of sex. This introduces a wide range of gentle and 
tender secondary sexual behaviour and sophistication that reduce masculine 
aggression, slow down the conquest of woman's body and prolong the 
reciprocal love-play to the enhancement of pleasure of each partner. Man 
has risen above the mammalian dispensation in respect of sexual excitement 
at the rutting season. His sex drive is less explosive and more steady and 
continuous. It can fuse readily and subtly with various other drives. 
Sex in fact interlaces with the whole range of man's desires, interests and 
activities, integrating his mental life and leading to higher reaches of ex- 

1 de Beer : Emberyos and Ancestors, pp. 75-76. 

* See Roheim : Psychoanalysis and Anthropology, pp. 409-413. 


perience. Hunger and sex are the major drives of men but it is through 
strange and devious biological steps that sex has reached its present evolu- 
tionary role. Sex in man is much more pliable, complex and productive 
than hunger. If hunger is the mother of material inventions, sex is the 
mother of creative spirituality. Human sexual behaviour, grounded in 
mammalian sex biology, is marked by the subtle integration and mutual 
adaptation of attitudes of man and woman that evolve- and coalesce with 
many family and social functions and interests in the course of social deve- 
lopment. Among the mammals only man, with the sole exception of the 
domesticated milch animal, has the permanent breast with its mammary 
glands that undergoing adaptive evolution are at once the cause and effect 
of the "domestication" of man and the stability of his family. The per- 
manent human breast assures nourishment of the new-born and dependent 
child. It is favoured by natural selection and is the visible sign of male 
selection of females. 1 It bears the impress of the progress of sophistication 
and the decorative arts of human culture. 

Art, fashion and tradition in different cultures and epochs select those 
ideals of physical beauty in both man and woman that cover the entire range 
of possibilities of bodily form delicate and tender or full and luxuriant, 
hard and ascetic or soft and sportive for effectiveness of love play and rep- 
roduction. Secondary sexual characteristics, especially the features and 
expressions of the face, and symbolic gestures and behaviour comprise 
the chief appeals of human love. An interplay of reciprocally adjusted 
sensitive sexual responses, both overt and symbolic, subdues the male 
mammalian fury and subordinates the function and value of human repro- 
duction to those of play, communication and communion. The discipline 
of sexual behaviour at the biological and sensual dimension which the 
prolonged learning period of man and his aptitude for inhibition and 
symbolisation foster, nay enforce, aids the structuring of sexual feelings 
and emotions into tender affections and sentiments in the family that gradual- 
ly extend into ever- widening social groups. The polymorphous mamma- 
lian disposition is canalised and deployed into socially approved modes of 
sexual expression and remoulded beyond recognition. 
The Tendencies Towards Domestication and Monogamy in Man and Ape 

All this has important consequences not only on the stability of the 
human family but also on inter-personal relations in general. The pro- 
longed and complete helplessness of the newly born offspring and the needs 
of protection of the pregnant and lactating mother and of nurture and 
training of the young demand the protective vigilance of the male and stable 
union of the male and female already visible in some of the higher anthro- 
poids. The adaptation between parents and offspring evolves with man's 

1 Compare Klaatsch : The Evolution and Progress of Mankind, p. 156. 


"'domestication" and increased control over food and shelter and defence 
and care of offspring. Among the primates the large si2e of the baby pre- 
vents it from being carried on a hunt and requires the cooperation of both male 
and female in feeding and care. Such protection becomes continuous as 
the female continuously bears and nurses an offspring. "Monogamy," 
observes J. Maynard Smith, "is in the main confined to those vertebrate 
species in wbich the activities of both parents are necessary either in feeding 
or protecting the young, or, in birds, in building a nest or in incubating 
the eggs." 1 It is found among many species of mammals and nest birds, 
at least for a single breeding season. The longer periods of lactation and 
infancy in the case of the primates as contrasted with other mammals favoured 
a stable union between male and female, which may be regarded as a survival 
characteristic favouring the stocks which give natural selection the best 
opportunity for the care and protection of the mother and the rearing of 
offspring. The orang-outang, gorilla and chimpanzee males have been 
observed to sit on guard at the base of the trees in which they have built 
nests for the pregnant females. They are essentially the defenders, although 
they also assist in the feeding and training of the young. 2 Jennings has 
rightly observed : "The tendency towards a permanent cooperative life 
career on the part of two parents is powerfully reinforced by the long 
period of dependence of the young. Marriage is life-long, even though 
the care of the offspring is not. Permanent monogamous marriage has 
arisen independently, through similar functional requirements, in the 
mammals and the birds : the biological needs giving origin to it being much 
the more numerous and powerful in the higher mammals." 3 

Contrasted Social Roles and Set of Dispositions in Early Man 

Homo sapiens developed a bi-parental, relatively permanent family that 
had survival value because of the long continued cooperation of both 
parents in the feeding and care of the offspring it could provide, and the 
bi-parental family unit tended to be monogamous. Natural selection did 
not favour polygamy as in the case of some primates because of the dif- 
ficulties experienced by the hominid male to provide protection and food 
for many females often assembled in a primate harem. Groups of several 
families hunted and foraged in the grass-land dividing it into a territory 
system whose rigidity or flexibility depended upon conditions of food 
supply and security. The biological rewards of success of a more or less 
stable monogamous union at breeding and adequate care and training of 
offspring were reinforced by several significant behavioural adjustments 
more suited to the brainy ape-man than to any other social animal like 
the wolf which like him hunted in packs. Carveth Read was the first to 

1 Sexual Selection in S. A. Barnett (Ed.) : A Century of Darwin, pp. 233-243. 

2 Parsons, The Family y pp. 137-141. 

3 The Biological Basis of Human Nature, pp. 260. 


point out the advantages of pack hunting placing a premium on the types 
of skill and cunning and cooperative activities that differentiate human from 
ape behaviours. Pack hunting introduced division of labour and the social 
tissues of authority and obedience integrating single family units into hordes, 
clans and tribes embracing several generations. Behavioural controls 
early developed in connection with the wolf pattern of hunting. The 
traditions of control and subservience, loyalty and cooperation were nurtured 
at the pre-cultural ape-man level by the wolf type of expedition. But 
Carveth Read failed to evaluate the psychological and social consequences 
of the women with clinging children being left behind by the hunting 
pack. Grounded ape- women could not leave their offspring in cave shelter and 
hunt with the pack. The division of labour established between the hunter 
and the keeper of the "hearth and home" was in fact more crucial for the 
transformation of primate into human nature. What was initiated because 
of the psycho-biological needs of care and protection of the human off- 
spring was reinforced because of the intensity of the mother-child relation- 
ship, that was in its turn the outcome of the slow human post-natal deve- 
lopment. On one side, social selection favoured parental, especially mater- 
nal protection and tenderness, contributing towards greater strength and 
survival of the children. On the other side, the feelings of affection, 
kindliness, tenderness and sympathy grew stronger because of heredity 
and difference in training and traditions in the home. Woman's identi- 
fication with the child and the child's identification with her laid the founda- 
tion of human cohesion and intimacy, with corresponding feelings of an- 
xiety and frustration caused by helplessness and loneliness. The 
woman who wandered with her children about her forest-shelter, gathering 
nuts, herbs, roots, and grass seeds, probably made the tentative beginning 
of cultivation by planting seeds. Around the forest-shelter, den and 
camp-fire with their safety, comfort and intimacy man came to know affec- 
tions, ecstasies and exaltations in the family that found expression in the 
illogical and emotional quality of his speech. In the hunting ground he 
came to experience the wild rage, aggressiveness and joy of fights and 
combats. The contrasted set of dispositions still governs his ways of 
thought and feeling. The differentiation of social roles with their patterns 
of interdependence, love and conflict, rooted in man's bio-psychological 
composition, was linked with the evolution of human behaviour and culture. 
The more numerous the hunting community, the greater the cooperation 
and division of labour and the more complex the economy, involving not 
only the hunting enterprise but also food-gathering and domestic activities, 
distributed between the males and females and the various seasons of the 
year. All this required learning of various kinds that gradually lifted 
the ape-men from the non-cultural primate level to the lowest cultural 


Human Origin and Sexual Latency 

The climate and environment of learning and acquisition of tools 
and traditions was obviously provided by the bi-parental, monogamous, 
primate family with a stable domicile. It was in the domestic life of the 
primates that important behavioural transformations and acquired mating 
behaviours were witnessed that shaped and moulded the inter-personal 
relations of Homo sapiens. The investigations of Zuckerman and Carpenter 
in the wild have shown that among the sub-human primates, due to the 
dominance of the male leader, the subordinate and younger males are 
excluded from access to the females. Sexual attractiveness comprises the 
ultimate bond of individuals in the ape community. The emergence of 
this feature to prominence in the behaviour of the ape creates and main- 
tains primate social organisation. But Carpenter points out that the sexual 
bond persists in the present-day species for long periods even without 
primary or overt sexual activity. The capacity of the subordinate or 
younger males to control the libidinous and aggressive impulses acquired 
an evolutionary significance. For in selection those males in the commu- 
nity are favoured who excel in these respects. Those young males who 
challenge the dominant male not only run the risk suffering defeat and 
expulsion but also serious impairment of their mating behaviour. Lajos 
Szekely suggests that in this manner the descendents of the primate troop 
or herd developed an ego organisation with its inherent hostility to in- 
stinct. The regulation of social relations of mature males by the threats 
and punishments of the high-ranking males met with in all species of infra- 
human primates accordingly has possibly led to the emergence of human 
sexual latency (succeeding infantile sexuality and preceding mature genital 
sexuality unfolded in puberty) and the evolution of the human super-ego 
system. 1 Freud postulated that a sexual latency period was specifically a 
human phenomenon and was related to the process of man's genesis. Pie 
observes : "The postponement and the beginning twice over, of sexual 
life has much to do with the transition of humanity." 2 The development 
of human latency seems to be psychobiologically rooted in the mating 
circumstances and behaviour of the sub-human primates. 
Psycho-biological Roots of Human Morality 

The unity and stability of the human family depended upon more 
powerful constraint as well as forbearance and control on the part of the 
younger and stronger males in respect of sexual gratification within the 
family circle than in the primate society. Social selection favoured what 
later on were crystallized into incest taboos as maintaining the integrity 
and continuity of the family, and reducing intersexual conflicts, bickerings 

1 See Szekely; Man's Origin and the Latency period, International Journal of Psycho- 
analysis, 1957. 

Outline of Psycho-analysis. 


and contests that die hard in the ape community. Such taboos for this 
species of primate, no doubt, prevented the splitting up of the family, 
troop or horde when the strength of the chief or leader waned, or when 
his mistrust arising out of jealousy became anti -social and threatened his 
troop or horde with destruction. These constitute the psycho-biological 
foundations of human morality. 

Etkins mentions among other human advantages the loss of body 
hair and the addition of ventral sexual intercourse. The loss of hair elimi- 
nated that favourite pastime of lower primates grooming. 1 Ventral 
intercourse gave opportunities for reciprocal sex play replacing male sex 
outburst, and aided the development of amiable speech focussed round 
communication for sex exploration and amusement. With the elimination 
of the sexual roots of anger and aggression in the family milieu, facilitated 
by the definition and systematisation of the incest taboo and the deepening 
and extension of maternal love, sex occupied a considerable proportion 
of leisure time. The role of sexual recreation in the development of ten- 
derness, affection, goodwill and "good manners" in early social behaviour 
can hardly be exaggerated. 

All this was stimulated by, and stimulated the development of the fore- 
brain, particularly of the frontal lobes of Homo sapiens. Coon mentions 
that the hominid's capacity for restraining rage reflexes in sexual behaviour 
and for good judgment, as the universal incest taboo in the integrated 
family demands, stem from the prefrontal lobes of the brain. Experi- 
ments on cats and monkeys show that the area of concentration for the 
suppression of rage is centred in the amygdala, which is very highly deve- 
loped in man. Ward performing pre-frontal lobotomies on macaques 
found that they loss social controls, 2 Boland in a similar body of macaques 
removed small areas from different parts of the pre-frontal cortex only. 
Removal of each subdivision of the frontal lobes produces different and 
characteristic changes in behaviour, learning ability, emotive attitude, or 
other recognizable effects. The emergence of the tissues of repression and 
inhibition, on the one hand, and of social control on the other for which 
pre-frontal lobes of the brain seem necessary, is at the roots of the genesis 
of morality with a premium paid on prudence, loyalty and fair deal. An- 
thropoid nature lacks the neurological basis of morality. The increase of 
brain power and capacity for inhibition, the integration of the family and 
the beginning of morality through the exercise of prudence, foresight and 
social control among the ape-men went hand in hand with the discovery 
and use of tools and fire. Tools and implements increased the efficiency 
of the male as hunter, while the household fire reinforced the efficiency of 
the female as domestic and cemented social bonds. 

1 Etkins : Social Behaviour and the Evolution of Man's Mental Faculties, Tbt 
American Naturalist, May- June, 1954. 

8 Coon, C.S. ; Tht Aw&itw Naturalist, September-October, 1955, 


Division of labour beginning with the sexes in the integrated family 
of Homo sapiens gradually extended itself to different activities and pur- 
suits for both males and females. It contributed towards the preservation 
and protection of the young and the aged that stimulated both the dis- 
covery of tools and weapons and the conservation and transmission of tools, 
traditions and techniques. The enlargement of division and specialisation 
of interests and activities called for an extension of the period of learning 
that was biologically met by the delay in attaining maturity on the part 
of the human young, permitting a longer period of learning. The secret 
of man's superiority does not lie, as we have seen, in the size of the brain 
before birth. The brain of the gorilla at birth is close to that of human 
infant. But the sutures of the gorilla skull close early and his brain will 
develop little more. By contrast the human brain will first spurt and then 
grow steadily over an extended youth. The price that Homo sapiens pays 
is a helpless childhood, but this is recompensed by its tremendously en- 
larged mental faculties and capacity for learning. Brains, tools and social 
ties were linked with one another in emerging man brains that were adapt- 
able and educable, tools that were transformed and exchanged, and social 
ties that were enlarged and intensified from the beginning of the grounded 
life of ape men. 

Civilizing of Sex and Aggression in the Human Mammalian Family 

Due to the operation of several factors comprising one complex, 
viz. (a) long oestrus period and continuous attraction and childbearing, 
(b) permanent and heightened sexuality, (c) cortical instead of hormonal 
control of sexual behaviour, and (d) dominance of concepts and symbols 
focussed round the taboos and injunctions against incest, monogamy played 
a unique role in the hominid's social and mental development. It is pos- 
sible that mother-fixation and other complexes that drew the attention of 
Freud are due both to the precarious and retarded sexuality and long period 
of infancy of human infant, whose sensory and neural equipment matures 
early and the associated exaggerated tenderness and devotion of the mother 
to the child. It was the climate of profound bi-parental attachment, care 
and devotion that was largely responsible for bridging the gap between the 
man and primate, and for maximising the human qualities of love, tender- 
ness and sympathy that were transmitted in the first instance by the female 
chromosomes, and in the second instance by tradition from one generation 
to another. As contrasted with most animal species the father is the ubi- 
quitous member of the hominid family. On the one. hand, it was the 
tenderly loving and solicitous woman who tamed the pugnacious male, 
the hunting beast. On the other hand, it was the male hunter, fender and 
provider that alone could train the male children in the masculine arts of 
defence and warfare. The early woman was the mother of the various arts 
and crafts such as weaving and pottery, if not agriculture, Training and 


education which are the hominid family's universal functions also depended 
on its moral side largely upon the female endowed with a larger instinctive 
equipment of tenderness, sympathy and solicitous devotion than the male. 
Even activities connected with the maternal protection and care of the 
offspring required learning. Yerkes and Tomlin have shown the ineffi- 
ciency in maternal behaviour of the primiparous chimpanzee. 

It is the complex hominid mammalian family that accomplished the 
final domestication of the male, fulfilling, disciplining and canalising his 
heightened sexual and philo-progenitive drives. It played an ambivalent 
role in early man's development : it both fulfilled as well as shaped and 
disciplined two of his major urges viz. sex and aggression so imperative 
in his early natural history. This it could do by continually evolving a web 
of traditions, meanings and values that effected a compromise however 
viable between these conflicting but impelling drives that were indeed 
transformed into man's bodily organs and characteristics and somatized. 
For while a woman's firm breasts and ample hips fitted for love and rep- 
roduction attract man, she is peculiarly fascinated by man's strength of 
limbs and tall stature fitted for defence and aggression. Thus sexual selec- 
tion is dovetailed into the transformation of the sexual and aggressive life 
of man in the milieu of the human family. 

The discipline of the sexual life consists in the adult man loving all 
women except loving sexually the first woman whom he loved in dependent, 
infantile fashion/ This was largely brought about by the universal incest- 
taboo in the human family that safeguarded the limits of both maternal and 
conjugal love, and at the same time fostered an emotional climate promoting 
both affections and security. Without the repugnance and dread of incest 
that we find in all societies and cultures, sexual jealousy and competition 
would never have permitted conjugal and maternal love and care of offspring 
to develop and mature to the human level, and the human family to become 
the stable and enduring foundation of interpersonal amity and cooperation 
gradually extending into wider cycles in social development. The discipline 
of the aggressive life consisted, first, in subduing sexual outbursts within 
the family so common among the apes; and secondly, in canalising aggres- 
siveness and rage into play, sport and training of the young for masculine 
cultural skills. It is the mammalian family which man inherited that fashion- 
ed human nature, shaping and educating as it did his major drives. So 
strong and all-pervasive is the process of socialization in the human family 
that Arthur Keith considers that maternal and conjugal love is an exag- 
gerated form of the social affections. It is from the latter that he considers 
the former are derived. He gives the evidence that when the sex glands 
are removed in childhood the social aptitude remains, but the mother's 
love and the lover's passion are no longer developed. This fact is in favour 


of the primacy of social feelings. 1 It is however difficult to accept this 
interpretation because the entire organic evolution shows the primacy of 
the sexual and maternal functions. 

Roofs of Love and Anxiety in the Mammalian Bonds between Child and Mother 
Bio-psychologically speaking, the reciprocal emotional attachment 
between the mother and child at the time of the latter's greatest physio- 
logical need, which is so favourable for man's mental evolution, is deeply 
rooted in the mammalian ties between mother and child. The prolonged 
breast-feeding of the child and its strong sucking reflex express the symbiosis 
of mother and child. The same organic inter-individuality is embodied 
in the heightened (genital) love of the adult man for the woman rooted 
in life history terms in the heightened oral relationship between mother 
and child. 2 The child's sucking the mother's breasts is its first step, deeply 
satisfying both physiologically and emotionally, in the development of inter- 
personal contacts. The pleasure-giving or rejecting mother becomes the 
symbol: of all future social relationships. Bevan-Brown points out that 
"it is obvious that a child's mother is, or should be, the first person in the 
world with whom he associates. She represents the first personal relation- 
ship, the first social relationship, the first sensuous relationship; it would 
be reasonable to assume that this relationship, being the first, sets the pat- 
tern of all subsequent relationships". 8 It is significant that neurosis and 
psycho-somatic disorder often arise due to the early experiences of the child 
deprived of breast-feeding and the basic emotional satisfaction it implies 
derived from the pleasures of contact with the mother's body. 4 

The significance of the emotional constellation called the Oedipus 
Complex by Freud lies in the fear and hostility towards his supposed com- 
petitors which a rejected or thwarted child always feels. The Oedipus 
Complex has many cultural variations, as has been pointed out by Freud's 
critics. Its psycho-biological roots are embedded in the prolonged depen- 
dency of the child upon the parents. Thus the parent's rejection or baf- 
flement of basic desires and activities, both sexual and non-sexual, of the 
child is accompanied by his anxiety and jealousy directed against one or 
other parent, who symbolises the irrational authority in the family milieu 
and engenders in him the sense of guilt. More than the incestuous wish 
of the child, it is, first, his possessive attachment to the person upon whom 
he depends for his basic gratification and security and, second, his bafflement 
in this that explain the universality of the Oedipus Complex and the core 
of the neurosis. The submission of the child to the dictates of authority 

1 A New Theory of Human Evolution, p. 180. 

2 Flugel, The Psychoanalytic Study of the Family, also Wilbur and Muensterberger 
(Eds.) : Psychoanalysis and Culture : Essays in Honour of Ge%a Roheim. 
8 M. Bevan-Brown : The Sources of Love and Fear, p. 15. 
4 Harris and others, The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, pp. 9-42. 


is, however, easily brought about by the fear of violating the universal taboo 
against child-mother relationship as well as the happiness derived from social 
conformity. In infancy both the man and the woman first love the mother 
dependently (orally). In the process of growth, physical and mental, man 
who understands feminity through his mother and loves all women as he 
grows does not love the mother sexually. Due to the universal sex taboo 
he changes his conception of love from dependency to protection. This 
is the outcome at once of the early division of labour and the cultural pro- 
cess. Woman, who also first loves her mother in childhood, comes to love 
both her parents dependently, but can change the sex of her original love- 
object in order to love all men sexually and dependently. Biologically and 
psychologically, woman readily extends her all-comprehensive maternal 
love involving solicitous care, gentleness and devotion to children or to 
men, and knows more about love than man does. Woman's love is subtler, 
maturer, more comprehensive and more complex than man's, and reveals 
the acme of skill, knowledge and tenderness reached by the human species. 
The anthropologist Ashley Montagu considers that the feminine concep- 
tion of love shows the highest form of human intelligence, while the mas- 
culine idea of love is not very different from that of a gorilla's. Another 
anthropologist Weston La Barre also agrees with him stressing that there 
is a psychological mystery in woman's mature love, because some women 
seem just arbitrarily to love men and it cannot be understood why this should 
be so in terms of early childhood. The woman who as a child first loved 
her mother can make the "mysterious" change in the sex of her love-object 
and come to love her father and hence to be able later to love men. 1 
Consequences of Man becoming Less Mammalian In his Family 

From the biological viewpoint, modern man shows a definite regression 
from the bio-psychological interdependency of man, woman and child that 
lies deep-rooted in his mammalian descent and that has been immensely rein- 
forced in his own ancient evolutionary growth. This has shaped human 
nature and is writ large in the very bodily features of child, man and woman. 
More than among the primates sexuality and sociability are linked with 
each other in the human species. The long evolutionary history of mam- 
mals, and especially of the social anthropoids and hominids endowed the 
human parents with hereditary impulses of enduring reciprocal attachment, 
tenderness and protection and of maternal care of offspring. Constant 
selection favoured strong and mature mating and philo-progenetive impulses, 
which extended beyond the individual to their propagation in the commu- 
nity, stock or race and whose efficacy we still discern in all homogeneous 
rural communities. In the vast heterogeneous bee-hive cities of modern 
civilization both mating and parental impulses have waned. The instability 

1 The Human Animal^ pp. 214-216. 


of the family as an institution:, the break-down of monogamy, the dissocia- 
tion of sex from reproduction and the loss of that parental solicitude and 
care for children which near men and their ancestors enjoyed or bestowed 
are influencing the pattern of genetically determined dispositions as well 
as sexual selection towards a relative bio-psychological independence of 
mother, father and child. Both the new highly artificial congested urban 
environment and the sophisticated, precarious conditions of family life 
serve as selective forces on larger units and larger periods than the in- 
dividual and his life. The potential parents of modern cities are less promp- 
ted to desire one another, to build a stable home and to nurse and nurture 
the resulting young than the parents of only two or three generations back. 
In modern urban communities man is becoming largely polygynous. There 
is a definite trend towards the loosening of marital bonds and promiscuity 
that seems to be accepted as an inevitable accompaniment of urban-indus- 
trial progress. More and more sex tensions, repressions and conflicts are 
associated with aggressiveness. In the zoth century the crisis in civilization 
is connected with the dual expressions of sex and aggression or war and 
the two are psycho-biologically related to each other. The French socio- 
logist Gabriel Trade reached the same conclusion several decades ago, while 
speaking of the contemporary exclusive stress of the recreational values 
of sex and its divorce from life, and cherished the hope that in the future 
as society develops greater cohesion, the explosive and destructive energy 
of the predatory human male will be replaced by a sexual pattern fulfilling 
the highest and noblest responsibilities of life. 

In biological terms man is becoming less mammalian than any other 
mammal. To give an over-all picture of the functional independence that 
gradually replaces the ancient mammalian symbiosis of mother, child and 
father in the modern family : the new-born child, bottle-fed rather than 
breast-fed, and continuously deprived of the warm bodily contacts and 
affections of the mother becomes frustrated, undomesticated and sick and 
grows into a neurotic or chronic offender; the mother diminishes her 
attendance upon the child and chooses a career in industrial establish- 
ments, shops and offices with opportunities of extra-marital sexual inter- 
course; the father decreases his protective attendance of both the mother 
and child and tends to be polygamous in association with a clientele of 
maids and woman assistants as his mistresses. The human mammal in 
a male-centred civilization is losing the innate, organic inter-dependence 
of child, mother and father and its ancient, deeply rooted socializing milieu 
of the family which has moulded both human biology and psychology. 
The interference with the psycho-somatic experience of maternal contact, 
feeding and tenderness mutilates the child's humanity at the time of his 
greatest psychological vulnerability. Polygyny and birth-control in alliance 
with each other introduce new conceptions of sex, marriage and family 


that extravagantly stress the recreational aspects of sex dissociated from 
the immensely ancient claims of parenthood and stability of the family. 
Even the human female, superior to the male in her psychological under- 
standing of the modes and the means of love and its fulfilment, has lowered 
the standards of sex. Artificial insemination has been introduced, and 
led to the production of offspring of test-tubes from donors. Such test- 
tube offspring has been declared illegitimate in the U.S.A, and legitimate 
in the U.K., even if the father is unknown and the husband's consent is 
not obtained. The relations between the husband and wife and between 
mother and child may be altogether transformed and the family may dis- 
integrate further if science makes artificial insemination easier and more 
widespread, and thousands of babies come to be procreated outside any 
social, legal or religious sanction and only by the will and consent of medical 
men. It is estimated that in the U.K. 10,000 "test-tube babies" were born 
in the past thirteen years. The age of mechanization and disregard of 
organic processes may also some day discover an apparatus of stereotyped 
and effortless mechanical orgasm that may abolish the rhythm of bodily 
contacts and the ebb and flow of human affections. 

Man, the Polygynotts and Pugnacious Mammal 

Man is ending by becoming polygynous, hyper-sexual and hyper-aggres- 
sive in his family life unlike the social anthropoids. He is dissipating the 
mammalian gifts of the psycho-biological interdependency of woman, 
child and man, and becoming a foot-loose sex adventurer and renegade. 
It was the deeply-rooted mammalian family which civilized the ego-centric 
sex drive and was the vehicle of education and transmission of Homo's 
sociability, tenderness, love and altruism. As Homo became an enterprising 
migrant and pioneer in new lands and an adventurous nomadic warrior 
early in his life -hi story, the solidarity of his family received a set-back, 
although migrations and wars were indirectly responsible for the enrich- 
ment of his genetic and social inheritance. More than any other animal 
the human mammal shows greater variability of types. This is connected 
with his stronger migratory habits and greater range of wanderings than 
any other animal species. His wanderings are largely due to his biological 
capacity for acclimatization and control over the environment through 
his social organisation and repertory of speech and artificial tools. Yet 
in spite of man's divergent evolution producing the very different major 
black, yellow, white and other sub-species he has remained a single species. 
There are important social consequences of his variability and migration 
that are linked with each other, and that are also coupled with man re- 
maining a single biological species without sub-division. 

First, man has shown more inter-breeding or crossing than most animals 
without becoming infertile. This is largely responsible for the variety of 
human cultures in man's history. Such variety is of course the final out- 


come of the change in the dimension of human adaptation from the biolo- 
gical to the mental and cultural level. As a matter of fact the universal 
incest-taboo in the human family which enforced exogamy was an impor- 
tant factor in the prevention of the evolution of Homo into several separate 
species on the one hand and the diffusion of language and culture on the 
other. Very early in the evolution of man a cultural factor intervened that 
promoted the "poly typicality" of the human species and the development 
of a common inheritance for different human cultures. 

Secondly, man's migratory habits coupled with the possibilities of 
admixture between distinct types with their social consequences in respect 
of slavery, miscegenation and extermination has promoted chronic con- 
flicts and internecine wars which have become normal and are of major 
importance only in his case. There are no animals that show so much inter- 
species conflicts culminating in the extermination of distinct types. Even 
today the fate of HOMO sapiens is hanging in the balance due to the possi- 
bility of wars on a global scale with the use of atomic weapons. 

Thirdly, because of the fact that the human animal has obtained and 
maintained his ascendency without splitting, he has also been able to deve- 
lop a single global human civilization. Many social insects have evolved 
a more perfect and well-knit social organisation and have shown greater 
social cohesion. Their patterns of life show a greater responsiveness to 
the limits and possibilities of their ecological and biological environment 
but are rigidly circumscribed within their different sub-types. Neither 
ants, nor bees, nor wasps, though they accumulate iind transmit an external 
social heritage, have been able to create a single global insect tradition. 
Some biologists consider that the biological evolution of man will be re- 
tarded due to the human species rapidly becoming through more or less 
even admixture a huge, undivided population. 1 But the handicaps due to 
"genetic laisse^faire" in a vast homogeneous intermixing type are far out- 
weighed by the social advantages which are more to be reckoned with for 
man's fresh evolutionary advance. Besides any possible biological draw- 
backs arising from the obliteration of peculiar local types or combinations 
of types suited to different biological experiments may be counteracted by 
measures involving some artificial influencing of human selection. 

It is because man is unique in comprising a single biological species 
and at the same time is divided into diverse sub-types, it is his evolutionary 
destiny to achieve and maintain one common human civilization on the 
earth. Representing as he does the acme of organic evolution that has 
proceeded for more than a thousand million years, it is his prerogative to 
build up consciously and deliberately a common social heritage that can 
embrace the earth. The heritage is the experience of love, beauty and 
goodness and enhancement of human standards of common living that can 

1 H.J. Muller: Man's Place in Living Nature, The Scientific Monthly* May 1957. 


unite entire humanity in spite of the set-backs of war and hostilities. To 
the extent that man fails to develop a common world tradition he falls 
below his mammalian dispensation. The failure of the pugnacious and 
aggressive human animal to do so is largely connected with his failure to 
maintain the mammalian interdependency of woman, child and man in 
the biological family. The rage and aggression impulses and phantasies 
of the disorganised family and inter-personal relations are some of the 
root-causes of inter-group conflicts, revolutions and wars. 

On the other hand, the extension of the ranges of man's altruism and 
compassion, his emotions and sentiments of identity with fellowmen in 
ever enlarging ambits, spring from sexual love, affection and tenderness 
in the family. Brains, affections and infantile dependence comprise the 
essence of humanness. All that distinguishes man from the animal in 
evolution has developed within the family, and man should safeguard rather 
than fritter away this legacy. It is the family that transforms the explosive 
mammalian sex impulse into gentle, self-oblivious inter-personal affection 
and tenderness. The tender and subtle nuances of sexual play and drama- 
tisation in the family setting raise man's sexual selection to the higher 
plane of unison of emotion, sentiment and behaviour. His basic aptitudes 
and capacities of repression, sublimation and symbolisation, facilitated by 
learning and tradition, transform the polymorphous animal endowment 
into an ever differentiated richer, and deeper pattern of love, that due to 
the relative freedom from inherited patterns not only becomes different for 
each man and woman but also becomes a comprehensive compassion and 
altruism. As a result of sexual education, discipline and symbolisation, 
frustration and privation do not necessarily result in mental distress but 
rather redirect love to the larger kinship group, to the community, to 
mankind at large. Mankind must restore affection, compassion and tender- 
ness in the family and abolish its primitive despotisms, hates and fears 
before it can expect the ideal and organisation of mankind-as-a whole to 
appeal effectively to the moral sense of the individual. With the uncons- 
cious motivations of hates and jealousies in the family group, the ideal of 
the brotherhood of mankind can never secure his allegiance, but can pro- 
voke his hostility or may be utilised by incurable authoritarians for aggres- 
sion against the individual and for threatening the solidarity and security 
of the race. 
Human Dissipation of the Acquisitions of the Mammalian Family 

Man's nearest relatives, the chimpanzees, as found by Yerkes, Craw- 
ford, Kohler, Nissen and Maslow, are among the most peaceful, affectionate, 
unaggressive and altruistic of animals. Nissen gives a vivid account of 
a large chimpanzee male rushing directly towards him in the bush without 
any sign of fear and "saving" a youngster from an imagined attack. Yerkes, 
who quotes this, remarks that the chimpanzee's solicitude is exhibited also 


by various monkeys. "It has repeatedly been observed and recorded. 
One might define it as group response to a vocalisation whose meaning 
appears to be danger, help ! The instant the cry is uttered by an individual, 
its companions almost as one rush to its assistance. Their united attack 
on an intruder may be both precipitant and violent." 1 Kohler delineates 
the poignant sympathy of a whole group of chimpanzees towards a sick 
comrade and their joining together in a demonstration of protest as the 
experimenter imposes severe discipline on one of them. Sympathy, ten- 
derness and altruism are characteristic not merely of the great 'anthropoid 
apes. The Rhesus monkey parents in India show altruism to the extent 
of sacrificing their lives in defending the offspring against the attacks of 
human hunters and captors. The Diana monkey mother is known to sacri- 
fice herself to save the lives of her offspring against the carnivores in the 
tree-tops, the young ones being passed on to a neighbour monkey who runs 
away to safety with them. 

Man is dissipating his mammalian inheritance of maternal love, ten- 
derness and sacrifice characteristic of the great apes and many species of 
monkeys. Human nature is the product of evolutionary history, covering 
thousands of million of years, and was subsequently modified during man's 
arboreal apprenticeship. Having emerged from ape-dom man is losing the 
tenderness and lovingness, characteristic of the family life of mammals, and 
especially primates, and endangering his security. Clarence Day, com- 
paring Homo sapiens with his fore-runners points out that "primate nature" 
constitutes the most considerable element of human nature. 2 Man's ances- 
tors first became brachiating arboreal creatures and then descended from 
the trees 10 to 20 millions years ago. Homo sapiens emerged on the grass 
lands from this group much later only 5 0,000 to 100,000 years ago a very 
short period in the evolutionary scale. Much that is attributed to the 
development of human intelligence, reason and empathy or self-transcen- 
dence rests on family-oriented sociability and interdependence of mother, 
child and father, constituting the core of mammal and primate character, 
now being almost universally corroded. Psycho-biologically speaking, 
Homo sapiens is the family. His evolutionary progress rests on the biolo- 
gical continuity of the family and the social continuity of its goals, values 
and satisfactions that far transcend the overt economic, social and emotional 
interchange within it. To squander the birth-right of the family rather 
than to cherish, elevate and refine it is to tread on the wrong and dangerous 
track of human regression. Homo sapiens is now unwisely changing his 
dispositions, goals and patterns of behaviour in a direction not adapted for 
his successful living, and may perish just as many reptiles perished and for 

1 Yerkes and Yerkes : Social Behaviour in Infra-human Primates, Handbook of Social 
Psychology, pp. 10-23. 

2 This Simian World. 


the same reason viz. loss of parental care and solicitude in the family. 

It is clear enough that a refined and elevated family life, originally 
and psychologically rooted in the primate interdependency of man, woman 
and child, is linked with human stability and survival. The Tyrannosaurus 
rex had been the most mighty, stupendous and terrible predaceous animal 
that ever dominated the terrestrial scene. It was the most superbly equipped 
and successful vertebrate, well-adapted to the conditions of its existence 
in the Cretaceous Age. One of the causes of the extinction of this species 
is that it left its huge eggs unguarded and uncared for, and could not estab- 
lish the family that largely explains the ascendency of the new succeeding 
race of mammals. But it lived and thrived for at least a hundred million 
years, while Homo sapiens has ruled the earth for only one hundred thousand 
years. The lapse of the cooperative, tender and altruistic attributes of the 
mammalian family may spell man's doom. Homo sapiens must be a loving, 
tender and devoted family-man in order to survive. 



The Stages of Evolution of Sociality 

Society existed long before man emerged on the scene of the earth. 
Many social strands go back to organic evolution both in the plant and 
animal tracks. Organic evolution in its upper reach merges into and is 
succeeded by social or conscious evolution. According to J.B.S. Haldane 
the course of evolution has generally been downwards. The majority of 
species have degenerated and become extinct, or, what is perhaps worse, 
gradually lost many of their functions* 1 Julian Huxley also observes that 
there are grounds for suspecting that biological evolution has come to an end 
so far as any sort of major advance is concerned. He considers that "it 
is only through social or conscious evolution that the world-stuff can now 
realise radically new possibilities." 2 

Ecological communities like species of grasses and forest plants, fungi 
and bacteria, sea-pens, reef corals and sponges show physical contact which 
is the basis of aggregation. But this is purely a physio-chemical or cli- 
matic phenomenon, giving rise to vegetative societies. The biological 
advantages of proto-taxis, automatic mutualism or unconscious association 
are that they help to protect the organisms from damage from ultra-violet 
radiation and other environmental pressures, and from wounds. All 
living organisms show an innate trend towards aggregation reaching an 
optimum population size. 

There are certain creatures like mites in a rotten egg, insects around 
a lamp, rabbits in a warren and parrots in a flock which live a gregarious 
life but are hardly social. They have developed neither any sense of co- 
operation nor division of labour. Gregariousness and social life and or- 
ganisation should be distinguished in the behaviour and evolution of animal 
societies. Antelopes and wild horses are more social than prairie dogs, 
and a pack of wolves shows more concerted action than a herd of antelopes 
and horses. On the whole, as is expected, the more intelligent creatures 
viz. birds and mammals show social awareness, impulse and integration. 

The second stage of development is that of acquisition of a sense of 
division of labour and cooperation not only in attack and defence but 
also in other collective activities, such as food-quest, flight and expedition. 

1 Possible Worlds, pp. 303-305. 

2 Evolution and Ethics, pp. 122-123. 


This is exemplified by birds and herbivorous and carnivorous mammals. 
Pelicans show a marvellous device of cooperative fishing as they advance, 
wading across a lake in a semi-circle and closing gradually upon the fishes. 
Rooks also exhibit a lively sense of cooperation as half a dozen of them 
stealthily lift with their beaks a half-empty pot of rice from the household 
and remove it to a safe distance for a noisy, collective dinner. Lions are 
solitary carnivores. But in Kenya they have, due to reduced supply 
of game, developed the habit of hunting in a pack with a regular division 
of labour. The pack spreads out in an enclosing movement in the forest 
and closes in roaring; while one lion lies quietly in ambush waiting to 
attack the game as it is driven in. 1 Many species of apes show combina- 
tion not merely in attack and defence but also in plundering orchards, 
crossing over streams and nesting in parcels of forests. Migratory birds 
from the northern climates owe their success in their long flights across 
continents to their wedge formation which lessens exertion, and develops 
the responsibility of guidance on the leader who can be changed when the 
bird gets tired. The most elaborate division of labour is, however, seen 
among the social insects like ants, bees, wasps and termites. Here the 
division of labour is due to physiological specialisation which has led to 
the formation of castes of queens, drones, soldiers and workers. The high 
degree of social integration based on physiological polymorphism discer- 
nible among "sanguinary" ants enables them to undertake long-drawn out 
inter-species expeditions and wars with almost human preparedness and 
tactical ability. "We laugh at the ants the laugh comes back on ourselves." 

The third stage of development of sociality hints at the emergence of 
the social tissues of leadership and subordination, discipline and obedience. 
Herds of elephants, deer and bisons and troops of apes and monkeys have 
their scouts, sentinels and leaders, and patterns of hierarchical organisation 
and social control and participation in various degrees of strength and 
flexibility have developed among them. 

The fourth stage of development of sociality among the animals is 
that of the evolution and transmission of a legacy of permanent, objective 
social products such as territory and traditions. For example, the social 
insects live a community life in their hives and nests, the beavers in their 
canals and ponds, and the social anthropoids in their forest territories. 
The young animals in each case have a basis on which to work an external 
registration of species gains. The permanent social products of animals 
as represented by the communal nest, shelter, store, camp or territory 
must be regarded as the beginning of social inheritance which has meant 
so much for man's evolution. Elaborate traditions of cooperation' centred 
round the dwelling and foraging territory bind the welfare of one genera- 

1 Linton, The Study of Man, p. 78. 


tion with that of another and assure the continuity of development of 
the species. 

Finally, the highest degree of sociality is associated only with certain 
species of animals which exhibit considerable sociability, sympathy and 
like-mindedness enabling mental and moral qualities to be selected, deve- 
loped and transmitted to an extent not discernible in other social animals. 
These animals are on the whole, more intelligent and have developed a 
considerable degree of intricacy of the brain and nervous system. Among 
them there is a conscious beginning of self-subordination and collective 
discipline as well as learning of behaviour. Plays and sports serve an 
important role in inculcating like-mindedness and unison, and fostering 
habits of social action, loyalties and sympathies among the young. The 
social and biological value of play among many social animals can hardly 
be over-estimated. These vary from the drilling manoeuvres of penguins 
and the choruses of some song-birds to the sports and expeditions of mon- 
keys and the active nursery games of lions and tigers. All kinds of animal 
games favour sociability, instil in the offspring habits of concerted action 
and discipline them for their social ways of living. 
The Ro/e of Kin-signals in Animal Society 

The most intelligent among the social animals develop not only col- 
lective games but also intricate socially imitated signalling reflexes or 
organic kin-signals. Smell, touch and voice are used in animal kingdom 
in divergent manner as means of social signalling and communication. 
Bees get news from one another by smell. Dancing is also a method by 
which worker and scout bees communicate news to the hive. Their round 
and wagging (or figure of eight) dances convey different information to 
the hive mostly in respect of the direction and distance of food supply. 
According to von Frisch, "the sweeter the newly discovered food the live- 
lier is the dance; the closer it is the more propaganda is made for it." 1 
Ants also communicate through smell and touch. The fmost important 
phase of evolution of the kin-signal is however the differentiation of sounds 
according to various biologic needs. We find the use of voice as a sex- 
call in most animals from the croaking frogs to the singing birds. We 
find also among many animals the parent calls to the young ones, as when 
patridges utter their danger cry that makes their offspring squeal and lie 
still or the young ones call their parents as in the case of the unhatched 
crocodile piping from the egg-shell. Many gregarious animals produce 
sounds in common due to imitation, rivalry in the case of males and the 
expression of greeting. An ass or pariah dog causes all the asses or dogs 
in the village to bray and bark. Bats call each other in passing. The 
roar of a lion causes other lions near by to join in the roaring, often having 

1 The Dancing Bees. 


no meaning. The howl of monkeys sometimes causes a whole neighbour- 
hood resound in a chorus of challenge, laughter or indignation. 

Kin-signals become "symbols" when these do not serve any immedi- 
ate adaptive requirements. There are no selective reasons for the deploy- 
ment and manipulation of patterns of abstract "symbols'* that comprise a 
late development from the inherited voice and behaviour patterns of animals 
and are elaborated in the complex processes of learning behaviour. 1 The 
uses of kin-signals by animals for defence and attack or in the course of 
hunting, foraging and migration, and again when these are associated 
with sex, pain, rage and fear are mostly biological, non-symbolic. An 
isolated monkey attacked by an eagle may summon its kindred by its moans 
and entirely alter the crisis. Many small gregarious birds make the hawk's 
expedition futile by uttering a danger cry. Many birds and mammals, how- 
ever, make gestures, cries or noises as they play and dance, irrespective of 
organic needs and contingencies of the biological situation. L. L. Whyte 
suggests that an unknown Homo who played with organic signals, ''i.e. 
used them apart from the corresponding biological situations took the 
first step in the discovery of language. From the non-adaptive surplus 
experiments as a kind of symbolic play man's language emerges. 2 

The recent works of von Frisch and Lindaur have shown that bees 
effect communication by dancing. A part of the interpretation of the 
performance of their round or figure-of eight dances depends upon the 
complex inborn behaviour pattern. All young bees', however, must go 
through a learning process within the hive, so as to properly understand 
and interpret the relation between dance and "the position of the food 
source." Scout bees exhibit different kinds of dances, so as to indicate the 
'quality' of a new site for swarming, viz., its direction, distance and suitabi- 
lity, von Frisch observes: "The "language* of the bees is not a verbal 
one, and its means of expression is not the tongue but the senses of touch 
and smell. The bees' 'words' are rhythmic movements and scents. The 
mental principles of communication between bees are quite different from 
those of the human language. They differ however also from the means 
of communication between other animals. The calls with which one 
bird warns or attracts another, or its mating song express only the animal's 
motivation, which can convey itself to other members of the species. 
The 'language' of bees, however, transmits the knowledge of "significant 
facts." Bees use a real 'concept' as they tell completely and accurately by their 
dances the direction of the feeding place with reference to the sun and its 
movement in the sky. They have developed what is called "prepositional" 

1 Thorpe: Learning and Instinct in Animals. See also Harlow : The Evolution of 
Learning in Roe and Simpson (Ed.) : Behaviour and Evolution. 
a Whyte: Accent on Form, pp. 162-163. 


language which until recently was considered as the sole monopoly of man. 1 
Similarly the notes of birds are usually inborn and fixed, but many song- 
birds have been observed to "learn" the fine detail, pitch and rhythm of the 
notes. While in a flock many gregarious birds build up through reciprocal 
stimulation and imitation a distinct community pattern of chatter that serves 
as a signal for birds even of different species to forgather. During spring 
when birds compete with other birds of the same species for nesting and 
foraging territory, they imitate the notes of experienced older birds or 
improvise new notes. Many birds are observed to follow their parents or 
models and adjust themselves spatially by obtaining guidance from the 
variegated cries or signals of the latter. Some birds are also known to 
"count" up to seven. Several ornithologists suggest that in the finer 
details of the elaborate songs of birds we discern the beginning of both 
true artistic creation and language. 

Modern studies in instinctive behaviour and the percepient learning 
of animals show that their thought processes are far less dissimilar to man's 
than was once considered. 2 Man's speech is preceded in natural history 
by the vocal improvisation and imitation of many other animals. These 
have survival values and also turn out to be their own rewards, i.e. are 
"symbolic" instances of "pre-adaptation" to apparently unknown biolo- 
gical si tuations and not of adaptation to immediate organic needs. In 
animal evolution instinct and intelligence, the more or less inborn equip- 
ment and the learning ability, intermesh. We cannot therefore discern 
where ani mal communication becomes "symbolic" and consciously in- 
tentional and transmitted as a "tradition" and a "value," developing com- 
plexity by elaborate learning processes and by pre-adaptive and non-adap- 
tive surplus experiments that comprise the emerging symbolic play. Hardly 
can biologists attribute any selective reason for the extreme tonal purity, 
invention and elaboration of some bird notes and songs that are akin accord- 
ingly to symbolic sounds at the human level. Where does this symbolic 
play of voca lisation emerge ? Even for the human species the first words 
and phrases appear to have fulfilled immediate biological goals and pur- 
poses to be transcended later by symbolic functions. 
The Discovery of Human Speech 

The genesis of human speech is not easy to discover. Man experi- 
mented with gesturing with the tongue along with gesturing with the hands, 
as he gave expression to his emotions. This led to the discovery of words 
in which lips, tongue and facial and manual gestures are simultaneously 
employed. It is a small area of the human brain in the front portion of the 
cortex that transforms the yelp, squeal, squall, howling or bellowing of apes 

1 von Frisch : Bees, Their Vision, Chemical Senses and Language and The Dancing Bees* 

2 Hinde and Tinbergen : The Comparative Study of Species-Specific Behavior in. 
Roe and Simpson (Ed.) : Behaviour and Evolution. 


into articulation for words. Words are heard as well as seen, and 
cannot be dissociated from social situations which elicit them from the very 
beginning. The vocal noises and facial expressions of early humans gather- 
ed precise* meaningful association in the intimate, emotional interplay 
within the family or any other face-to-face group where these could be 
easily read and understood. To follow and interpret them quickly, to be 
able to communicate and hence to cooperate, enabled human groups to 
survive and carry on the race. Words that are tools of the voice once 
standardised spread like the tools of the hands. With the use of words, 
man's mind, behaviour and values attained new dimensions of evolution. 

What were the unknown Homo's first words ? Were these of love, 
danger, command, rage and admonition, or of exuberance of spirits, euphoria, 
laughter, sport and sheer joy of social communication? Several hypo- 
theses of the beginnings of true speech hold the field. We may as well 
advance another hypothesis. Early man was not solitary but gregarious, 
not helpless and passive but courageous and adventurous. He neither 
ranged over the grass-land silently and stealthily like the great cats and dire- 
wolves, nor could run fast to escape danger like the antelopes and horses 
in the open. Most of human words at the beginning must have expressed 
in some manner feelings at critical situations. Each half-articulated cry 
or exclamation conveyed a strong emotion at the moment and was as elo- 
quent as the facial and manual gesture. A social predicament or crisis 
evoked such vocalisation that was shaped into speech by the human brain, 
and its obvious uses were social whether hunt, chase and flight, or work, 
play and merriment in association. Many words must have emerged to- 
gether according to the diverse emotions and situations which early man 
with his loose tongue encountered in the grass-lands. Unknown Homos 
perhaps discovered and spoke the first words or phrases on crucial occa- 
sions and for immediate, adaptive group requirements such as the following: 
alarm signals and cries for help during attack and defence, or when a Homo 
group lost its way in the maze of the forest; agonising or jubilant yells 
before or after a hazardous expedition, fight or economic enterprise; and 
sing-song syllables during strenuous collective toil like log-rolling, expedi- 
tion like hunting and fishing, and excited movement and dance like those 
round a captive female or a dead chief. Or the first words may have been 
Homo's choral shouts of relief, joy and exaltation in games, feasts and 

From cries, gestures and movements with their meanings fitted into 
the different situations non-adaptive, symbolic experiments which now 
comprise the major part of human speech there also evolved the magical 
drawings of the chase. As early man hunted and trapped wild animals of 
the grass-land and forest, he also created a magic of the chase, an unreal 
chimerical world led by the magic men or sorcerors, who vere capable of 


dominating and directing the horde. Without the magic man's 
intervention, the horde would split up in epidemic fear and stampede. 
Hunt and magic were depicted in the pre-historic paintings in French caverns, 
and the yells and hullabaloos of the chase were some of mankind's earliest 
vocalisations. Early hunters indelibly impressed the memories and re- 
veries of their hunts and expeditions on the first art products, the paintings 
and drawings on the dark walls of caverns, where they sought shelter from 
the weather and the beast, and feasted and enjoyed themselves after a suc- 
cessful animal drive. Love and solicitude, happiness and misery, surprise 
and release from tension and anxiety and mere physical delight and exhila- 
ration, in which the group participated, all found expression in early man's 
word or phrase that was remembered and became the property of the 
group, the human pair, the mother and her children, the leader and his 
horde. The mothers' babbling and chattering to their babies must have 
invented many words expressive of maternal tenderness, love and devo- 
tion. The sturdy, rough fathers coming back to the cave and sitting around 
the fire adopted them as expressions of generalised feelings. Similarly 
arduous toil and drudgery in team work in the forests were relieved by early 
man's rhythmical bodily movements, gestures and choral sounds that also 
were linked with useful mental sets, goals and activities. These had their 
survival values in man's evolutionary history. 

The Role of Words and Phrases in the Family and tie Hunting Pack 

It is a social rather than an individual crisis that obviously is the mother 
of the invention of the word or phrase aiding human struggle and survival. 
Man is not a solitary animal, living in isolation like a wolf, tiger or kite. 
We can well imagine how as soon as he completed his arboreal apprentice- 
ship, descended from the trees into the open plains and roved or hunted in 
a small isolated band comprising the male leader with a few female and 
young ones, group crises were more significant for human survival than 
the crises of personal life, connected with the individual's sexual excite- 
ment, tenderness, anger, fear and aggression. For the survival of the 
species the individual obviously is of minor significance. Noises and 
gestures became words or linguistic symbols as in the initial social situa- 
tion these elicited similar mental sets and behaviour from a number of 
individuals, and had the same adaptive "meaning" for all. 

Cooperation within the family and the hunting pack was the key to 
human survival in the grass-lands. This rested on effective communication 
whether it is a gesture, a signal from the facial expression or a sudden 
scream, warning and call. The effectiveness of communication of feeling, 
intention and goal of action decided whether the group and the individuals 
will eat or will be eaten, will live or die. Speech first developed in the set- 
ting of the cooperative hunting group gradually achieving larger and more 


effective size in man's struggle for living in the open territory, where the 
words had to be projected over distances. The empathy of the familial 
and the hunting group that standardised the voice, sounds and gestures 
and fitted their meanings to different social situations was the cradle of 
words and phrases. The communicative group safeguarded the survival 
of the individual and also provided the training of the young with speech 
or language as the basis of continuity of traditions and values. 

Genetically speaking, the primary quality and role of speech are biolo- 
gical-affective, developed from the cries of defence, attack, flight or move- 
ment of the gregarious mammals that arouse adaptive emotional responses 
and social behaviour in the pack, troop or colony. Gradually language 
is evolved by which we mean speech and sounds associated with particular 
objects and situations as well as with concepts and values looking back to 
the past and forward to the future. Language is oriented towards remote 
objects and goals and unlikely situations transcending biological needs and 
functions. In the human vocabulary there are abstract symbols that arise 
with reference to man's capacity for abstract reasoning and appreciation 
and achievement of abstract values. It is, therefore, pertinent to distin- 
guish between organic words and phrases that serve a biological function 
in terms of immediate or somewhat remote contingencies of life, and non- 
organic and symbolic words and phrases that emerge in the context of 
man's abstract reasoning and pursuit of abstract values. Man obtains a 
new kind of joy and self-competence through his use of words, phrases 1 , 
rhymes and songs for expressing abstract ideas and values such as life, 
death and destiny, truth, beauty and goodness. These become reinforced 
and all the more satisfying as many men can hear these. Happiness, self- 
esteem and pride, self-actualisation, creativcness and transcendence, all 
blend in the deployment of abstract language. Correspondingly, there are 
striking changes produced in the cortex. The human brain is much larger 
and more complex and plastic than the brain of any apes and earlier types 
of hominids. Its distinctive area lies in front of the central groove and 
the cortex which is associated with conceptual thinking, memory, imagina- 
tion and orientation for future action based on generalisation of ideas, 
values and experiences. 

Animal and Human Vocalisation 

Animal speech at its best is to be found among the great apes which 
have a large vocabulary. Chimpanzees in the forest have been known to 
express strong feelings of grief or indignation by sounds which being imitat- 
ed and echoed resound in the entire jungle. Language, like the rudiments 
of culture in general, has no doubt pre-human beginnings but true langu- 
age is the unique possession of man. It expresses abstract concepts and 
enables him to manipulate his ideas, emotions and experiences intellectually 


without being bounded by time and space. Animal noises and gestures 
occur in relations mainly, if not exclusively, to stimuli in the immediate 
external or internal environment. These are largely passive. Animals 
have hardly developed articulate sounds as a means of control of the envi- 
ronment and of the behaviour of other animals. For these have no abstract 
or symbolic meaning nor refer to the past or the future. Such deficiency 
imposes two limitations of the utmost importance in social evolution. 
First, communication, social intercourse and cooperation become radically 
limited in range and depth. Secondly, the development of symbols, tra- 
ditions and values is curtailed within extremely narrow bounds. Animal 
vocalisations cannot generalise nor can these have any abstract or symbo- 
lical meaning, and value attributes. Not even the great apes have the 
capacity for abstraction, generalisation and thinking in terms of sounds 
used as symbols. Since animal speech cannot describe what has happened 
in the past or is likely to happen in the future, it cannot promote learned 
behaviour except to a slight degree, nor facilitate cooperation in com- 
munal undertaking for remote goals and purposes to the extent that human 
language ensures. Language requires an elaborate association mechanism 
to link sound symbols and other signs with intelligent percepts and con- 
cepts. In man this involves cortical enlargement as well as different parts 
of the brain. No such association mechanism seems to exist in the brains 
of even the great apes. Man's phenomenal expansion of the neo-cortex 
with its extremely complex and refined archipallial structures and mecha- 
nisms is responsible for his verbal or symbolic capacity. 

The Ro/e of Language in Man's 'Evolution 

From the moment that man began to express conceptual thought and 
tradition in language, however feebly, however awkwardly, he began to 
develop a human nature. On the one hand, society favoured the evolution 
of communion from communication. On the other hand, language deve- 
loped "consciousness of kind" and set its seal on the tenderest and deepest 
social feelings and emotions. Language is an instrument of thought, 
valuation and social action. It serves as a cohesive force uniting human 
groups and setting them apart from others. The possession of a common 
language is an index of the social solidarity of the group. Thus language 
underlies the evolution and elaboration of tools, territory and traditions, 
especially symbolic and intellectual traditions which become the most 
powerful social binders and make one generation solidare with another. 
Intellectual traditions, as these transmit ideas, beliefs and experiences from 
one generation to another, greatly facilitate individual learning as well as 
exploration and discovery in new social situations. As Bernhard Rensch 
observes, the unique development of human mind is no longer founded on 
mutation and selection, but on the non-inherited transmission of experience 
through tradition. "The development of writing and printing permitted 


this development of tradition forming to be raised to a higher level than 
single brains can achieve by individual learning. Through books, extra- 
cerebral chains of associations were created, with which the human brain 
can establish connection at any time, and with the aid of which it can 
achieve super-individual effects." 1 

Above all, it is language which gradually builds up the morality of 
man who alone among the animal species is subject to chronic mental 
stresses and conflicts. Through his capacity of expressing value quality 
and value judgment on the patterns of his behaviour and experience that 
comprise alternatives he becomes moral. But morality is only a part of 
man's value feeling and experience. As an evaluating, appreciative, com- 
municating creature, he now comes to consciously direct his own evolution 
by his norms and standards of truth, beauty and goodness. 

Birds and mammals show the rudiments of this value consciousness 
and experience. Birds adopt a rigid nest or territory system, the tres- 
passing of which is attended with certain patterns of behaviour indicating 
almost a human sense of guilt. Such "a sense of guilt" is also shown 
by the social anthropoids caught by the leader of the troop in acts of en- 
croachment upon his sexual rights. The entire scheme of serial subordi- 
nation and domination of several species of anthropoids rests upon the 
recognition and discrimination of the "values" of relationship of subser- 
vience and dominance. Similarly these animals show evidences of recog- 
nition and appropriation of "economic values" embodied in food objects. 
Chimpanzees in captivity are seen to collect all kinds of objects, especially 
attractive ones, which they carry about with them in their arm-pits. Here 
is an evidence of recognition of "aesthetic values." The acquisition of 
territory for foraging and nesting and defence of a food object, a nest or a 
territory as well as the enforcement of dominance behaviour are accom- 
panied by attitudes and patterns of behaviour that show rudiments of cons- 
cious value experiences with their multitudes of variations and shadings. 
The educability of the great apes has been scientifically demonstrated. 
The ape mother teaches her child many life habits both by punishing it with 
bite and slap, and rewarding it with food and caress as the situation 
demands. Yerkes describes ourang and chimpanzee mothers systemati- 
cally exercising and training their infants and restraining them from doing 
certain things until they have reached a definite stage of development, and 
then encouraging and aiding to do them. Carpenter also observes that 
howling monkeys seem to make use of certain noises as meaningful ones 
in certain situations. Adult males interfere by a kind of growl when they 
notice that the young monkeys become too wild in their fighting play, 
whereupon they immediately stop it. 2 Many interesting experiments have 

1 Evolution of Central Nervous Functions in Huxley and others (Ed.) : Evo/ufiw 
0s a Process, p. 198. 

8 Comparative Psychology Monograph, vol. X.,i934. 


been carried out for the study of conflicts of the ^values" of obedience, 
hunger and sex, among the great apes and the genesis of their psychoneu- 
roses. It is the inadequate mental development and the absence of langu- 
age which shut out true value meaning and judgment on their part. 

Man's capacity for value experience and judgment has evolved from 
the animal level and is embedded in, and dependent upon, an interlocking 
net-work of his other capacities in which also he is unique : his use of 
language, conceptual thought and symbolisation rooted in his progressive 
cerebralization; his use of tools, territory and traditions; his capacity to 
inquire and manipulate ideas intellectually; and finally his awareness of 
self-actualisation or growth. The term self-actualisation is used by Kurt 
Goldstein, Rogers and Maslow and means man's tendency "to become every- 
thing that he is capable of becoming." Cantril calls this the outstanding charac- 
teristic of man his capacity to sense value attributes and emergent values 
in all situations, activities and experiences. No doubt man's emergent 
values of life are characterised by their uniqueness and their immediacy. 
Yet these are shared in common with other men and are relatively expan- 
sive and transcendent. As he experiences values and makes value judgments 
quickly, largely unconsciously, his intelligence is released to deal with the 
larger range and greater complexity of his environment in his evolutionary 
development. Thus what are social products beliefs, goals and values 
guide man's selection and survival. 

Man's Mental Development 'Lop-sided 

It is only the intelligent animals which with the increasing develop- 
ment of sense organs have also evolved the cerebral cortex that can in 
some measure experience and transmit values and develop and refine social 
and moral tissues. The cerebral cortex is the seat of the symbolic activity 
of man without which neither his intellectual nor his moral and social 
advancement is possible. 

Some years back Morley Roberts suggested that the enlargement of 
the human brain has gone so fast and so far that the result is actually 
pathological. It is a sort of "tumourous overgrowth" of the human cortex 
with its functions out of normal control that is responsible for world-wide 
exploitation, conflict and ,war. William James also observed long ago 
that much human failure is due to the fact that most people do not use 
half the brain power with which they are endowed. Herrick quoting him 
remarks : "There is plenty of mechanism available and vast reserves that 
are never drawn upon except perhaps in explosive emotional outbursts 
without rational control." 1 A comparative study of brains from the lower 
vertebrates to man shows on the whole that the marked characteristic is 
progressive cerebralization i.e. increase in the quantity and complexity of 

1 The Evolution of Human Nature, p. 398. 


the fore-brain. Man's mental advance remains lop-sided. There is an 
exaggerated development of the cortex containing some ten billion neurons 
responsible for his striking intellectual progress and relatively inadequate 
progress on his instinctive and affective side that might have induced cor- 
responding improvement of his relations to fellow-man. The biologist 
Bertalanffy has recently stressed that due to this discrepancy not much 
development is seen on man's moral side since the emergence of the Nean- 
derthaler. He observes, "If moral progress is possible, it seems so only 
in the way of inhibition and sublimation. The inhibitory action of higher 
centres on lower ones is a well-known fact in neuro-physiology. It appears 
that we cannot change the bete humalne : we can only hope that the brute 
in man is better controlled."* 

Sociality Rooted in Family versus Open Aggregation 

It appears that the methods of evolution of sociality have been dif- 
ferentiated among the higher forms of animal life. Among birds, for 
instance, flocks usually arise more from the aggregation of individuals even 
of different species than from the fusion of mated pairs or families. On 
the other hand, among the social insects, higher apes and men, societies 
rest on the aggregation of family units. The ant society evolved from the 
family system of the non-social wasps, and the termite society evolved from 
the family system of the non-social cockroaches. 2 Insect societies are 
single families writ large, while Yerkes points out that gregariousness and 
degree of dependence of the individual on the group tend from lemur to 
man to diminish and at the same time to give place to a more definite and 
stable social unit, the family. The highest social solidarity and sacrifice 
of the individual for the common good seem to characterise animal societies 
integrated out of stable family associations. This points to a significant 
biological role of the family which human social evolution cannot out- 
grow. Even in bird life the territory system as well as display of noble 
parental devotion and sacrifice, which indicate distinct social advances, are 
associated with the short-lived familial existence, soon to be superseded by 
open congregations formed by individual birds even from different quarters 
and flocks. Both among birds and social insects the family is closed. But 
in the bands or troops of social apes and monkeys and in the human social 
organization, the family is open, and there are retained primitive aggregative 
or associative tendencies which, in the words of Wheeler, "hark back to 
the ancestral fish and tadpole stages." The most stable forms of social 
life appear to emerge when ecologic, sexual and familial integration has 
combined together along with the capacity for sympathy and subtle re- 
ciprocal response. The social result is a rapid increase of numbers in the 

1 The Scientific Monthly, vol. 82, 1956, p. 37. 

8 Emerson : Dynamic Homeostasis, Toe Scientific Monthly t Vol. 78, p. 80. 


herd, colony or association, which cumulatively increase the efficiency of 
obtaining food, establishes a high degree of division of labour and permits 
tentative new departures to meet environing limitations which the solitary 
animals could never risk. 

Human and Insect Societies 

There are profound differences between human and insect societies. 
First, human societies are open while insect societies are closed. The 
former are heterogeneous and show far greater genetic recombinations and 
more numerous mutations yielding a vast variety of genotypes that are 
tried out in the more complex human environments. Secondly, while 
human societies like insect societies are rooted in the family, man's beha- 
viour and goals have far transcended the levels of sexual and familial inte- 
gration as among the primates. Thirdly, the division of labour, social 
integration and directional evolution in insect societies are largely the out- 
come of physiological specialization that is modified by ecological factors. 
In human societies these are largely the outcome of symbolic communication 
and learned behaviour or culture. Fourthly, the social behaviour of man 
depends far more on his intelligence, educability and culture and far less 
on instinctive equipment as in the case of the social insect. The latter 
depends more or less exclusively on its repertory of a few, sharply differen- 
tiated instincts. That is why little or no development has taken place 
in the social life of insects. Man is more plastic and adaptable. His ins- 
tinctive endowment is less specialised, and his social life therefore has shown 
variety and complexity as well as inefficiency and set-back, not discernible 
in the insect level. 

Insect societies in their specialisation and coordination of the behaviour 
of individuals and castes in the interests of the colony as a whole show the 
biological triumph of instinct in social evolution. In the world today 
ants are more numerous than all other terrestrial animals in the aggregate. 
There are 3500 species of ants adapted to the most varied ecologic con- 
ditions of the environment. The enormous ant colonies of the tropical 
rain forests exhibit patterns of coordinated and regimented behaviour that 
far transcend any human totalitarian visions. Their enormous nests show 
an amazing intricacy of physical structure that can only be maintained by 
the rigid conformity of each caste to hereditarily determined stereotyped 
patterns of reflexes and instinctive activities. Schneirla and Piel describe 
an ant nest as "a seething cylindrical cluster, ant hooked to ant, with queen 
and brood sequestered in a labyrinth of corridors and chambers within 
the ant mass." Ants are the earth's oldest cosmopolitans and builders of 
metropolises in which their control of temperature, defence and storage 
and distribution of food approximate to human conditions. 

Divergence in Principles of Genetic Development 

H. J. Muller dealing with the extra-ordinary development of social 


behaviour among the ants, bees and termites formulates certain genetic 
principles. Ordinarily the social traits evolve as the result of inter-group 
competition and this takes a much larger time as compared with the evolu- 
tion of individually useful traits. The former pass through the sieve ot 
inter-group competition, while the latter become selected both by inter-group 
and inter-individual competition. The social insects, however, comprise an 
exception. Muller points out that in ants, bees and termites the group as a 
whole, consisting of workers that are all the off-spring of a single individual, 
shares the variations of that parent individual and virtually is that individual 
in an expanded condition, inter-group and inter-individual selection here 
being practically the same thing. In correspondence with this we find 
social instincts and behaviour and social characteristics in general developed 
to a far higher level among these social insects than in man or any other 
social mammals or birds. 1 At the same time the socially processed and 
directed programme of genetic development shows its own inherent limita- 
tion vi2. inflexibility even in the field of collectivization. For instance, as 
Julian Huxley observes, while the parallelism in the social evolution of the 
quite unrelated ants and termites is truly astonishing, the termites have 
never produced grain-storers or slave-makers, while the ants have no 
system of second-grade queens in reserve. 2 In the gregarious mammals, 
birds and humans the evolution of social habits is tardier than in the case 
of the social insects, among whom these achieved perfection millennia ago; 
while intelligence and not merely instinct becomes a factor in the social 
integration of the former. 

The Blend of Instincts and Intelligence in the Mammals and Humans 

In organic evolution even where the instinctive equipment shows 
its marvels, learning and a degree of intelligence are not altogether excluded. 
Human societies in their coordination of the autonomy and uniqueness of 
individual behaviour with the harmony and cohesion of the community 
exhibit the triumph of intelligence in social evolution. But even at the 
human level the role of instincts and habits though much reduced vis a vis 
intelligence cannot be eschewed. Bentley Glass observes: "In the evo- 
lution of the vertebrate line, it would seem that instinct and intelligence 
were rather equally matched for some 400 million years, well into the 
Cenozoic era. In fact, in only two classes, the Aves and the Mammalia, 
has one come to predominate over the other. In the birds, the instincts 
now have the ascendence, in the mammals, the intelligence." Goldstein 
analysing human behaviour distinguishes between "concrete' behaviour 
determined directly by a stimulus and "abstract" performances 8 in which 
behaviour is not initiated by any external agent but by the account of the 

1 Out of the Night : A Biologist's View of the Puture, pp. 99-100. 

% Man Stands Alone, pp. 237, 238. 

* A Biologic View ol Human History, The Scientific Monthly, Dec. 1951. 


situation which the organism gives to itself. These latter comprise totally 
different behaviour of the organism. "Even in its simplest form abstrac- 
tion is separate in principle from concrete behaviour." Accordingly, the 
contrast between concrete and abstract, immediate and forward-oriented, 
instinctive and rational comprises two dominating poles of cognitive ex- 
perience in the kingdoms of men and of birds. In man, intelligence reaches 
its highest level, and becomes the dominant factor for conscious social 
manipulation and integration, instinct being moulded and subordinated in 
the process; while both his evergrowing intelligence and ever-transformed 
instinctive equipment shape and transmit an increasingly complex social 
inheritance. The latter in its turn socially conditions fundamental instinc- 
tual and intellectual drives and at the same time elicits new possibilities and 

Human evolution is now on an uneven, uncertain track. Several 
biologists stress the danger that with the advance of a materialistic, over- 
elaborate and technological civilization the human species may show an 
evolutionary atrophy analogous to the physiological polymorphism and 
stagnation of the social insects, among whom independent viability is sacri- 
ficed to the trends of high specialisation and social collectivization. Man's 
social integration and control are, however, conscious, resting on the deve- 
lopment of his abstract intelligence, educability and altruism that have 
initiated a deep, refined, sophisticated pattern of socialization which can- 
not occur in insects. The efficiency of social organisation among the 
insects depends on the development of physiological polymorphism and 
modification of genotype in relation to environmental conditions. Obvi- 
ously the development of social integration in man rests on the evolutionary 
trend away from insect polymorphism and towards the deployment of 
language and symbolic communication and expansion of social impulses 
and sentiments of identity and altruism. Human symbolic communication 
and sentiments of self-extension and self-transcendence, rooted in his unique 
bio-psychology, chalk out the development of his adaptive and survival mecha- 
nisms through the learning and transmission of ever more comprehensive and 
intensified social symbols, traditions and values. At the same time these 
single him out as a victim of chronic and acute pathological symbolic in- 
terpretations, maladaptive values and anti-social behaviour that recurrently 
block his advance. Nothing in the evolution of animal and the psychology 
of man shuts out the possibility of man's regression and extinction. Simul- 
taneously this cannot also warrant denial of a prospect of his unpredictable 
evolutionary progress through greater identity and solidarity and higher 
empathy and morality, along with the viability of mental traits and capacities 
and uniqueness of intellectual and emotional reactions of the individual in 
which he is distinctive. Polymorphism among social insects is the recog- 
nition of the evolutionary need of a certain variety of gifts and capacities 
among individuals that contributes to the progress of biological society which 


strictly is found only among Social insects and humans. But human diver- 
sity is most thorough-going, determining both physical and mental inborn 
differences in faculties of the human individual and levels of achievement 
of social organisation or culture. The human individual and the social 
organisation can, accordingly, evolve together in an unceasing, reciprocal 
psycho-biological interchange revealing new and unpredictable minds, 
values and personalities as well as novel qualities and patterns of social 
integration in the unlimited community. 
The Variability of Human Potentials 

Of all animals man no doubt exhibits the largest amount of plasticity 
of behaviour due to his being the least endowed with a genetically deter- 
mined stereotyped set of instincts and dispositions, and differences in instinct 
and intelligence as between individuals determining a most considerable 
range of inborn very high or very low levels of performance. J.B.S. 
Haldane regards man as the most "polymorphic" species of mammal. 
Human "polymorphism" according to him, means the differentiation of 
types breeding together in the same area, the differences being genetically 
determined. It extends from physical and chemical characters such as 
stature and hair-colour to innate traits and capacities. Psychological 
polymorphism^ according to this biologist, has been a major reason for the 
success of the human species. A full practical recognition of the biological 
implications of human polymorphism, favourable to the development of 
the peculiar faculties and potentialities of the greatest number of human 
genotypes is essential for safeguarding the future of the species. A social 
and economic system in which there is neither freedom nor tolerance nor 
deviance cannot progress. "Liberty is the practical recognition of human 
polymorphism", observes Haldane. It safeguards the development of the 
peculiar intellectual and aesthetic abilities and potentials of human geno- 
types. Any encroachment on individual liberty and potentiality has, accord- 
ingly, serious biological implications for human progress and survival. 
The present trend of the attenuation of liberties in contemporary civilization, 
if continued indefinitely in the future, will lead to retrogression, biological 
and psychological. Such is the gloomy biological prospect for man in 
an over-elaborate, regimented civilization with stereotyped standards of 
conduct and patterns of thought and feeling that Haldane envisages. 1 

Human Entomb /vent In Mechanisation and Regimentation 

Mankind in the 20th century in its attempts to promote economic 
and social equality and security shows an increasing trend of regulation 
and diminution of the area of individual liberty and responsibility in the 
social organisation. This has happened in both totalitarianisms and democ- 

1 Human Evolution : Past and Future, Whit Burnett (Ed.); Tbis is My PbiksopLy, 
pp. 41-42. 


racies with profound impact upon basic personal rights and moral and spiri- 
tual values. All modern states as these accept plans for the overhauling 
of the economic structure and administer welfare services of all kinds in 
the interests of social security, justice and equality are tending towards 
totalitarianism. Totalitarianism is not confined today merely to commu- 
nist countries. Everywhere it assails and obliterates certain traditional 
rights and privileges of the individual and reduces the social areas of per- 
sonal choice and freedom. Philosophers like Bertrand Russell, humanists 
like H. G. Wells, and writers of fiction like C. S. Lewis and George Orwell 
agree that human social evolution has reached a stage where science and 
technology will rule most phases of human relations, and though mecha- 
nization, regimentation and standardization have their costs and risks these 
have to be borne. Bertrand Russell, for instance, considers that scientific 
civilization in the future means a good deal of reduction in individual free- 
dom that is inevitable. He observes that owing to the increasing need of 
organisation, a scientific society, if it is to be stable, will necessarily involve 
a diminution of individual liberty as compared with the societies of the 
past. This is regrettable, but apparently unavoidable. There will be, 
however, such important compensation that, on the balance, we may ex- 
pect an increase in human happiness. 1 

Roderick Seidenberg in his provocative book, Post-historic Man> 
that gives a new all-inclusive view of human history, has ably and force- 
fully attempted to show that while human culture is a living synthesis of 
instinct and intelligence man has now detached himself from the instinctual, 
the purposeful and the organic and permitted his intelligence to control 
one activity after another. "Organisation demands further organization; 
order demands order. Man, the puppet, animated from within by the 
hand of instinct, becomes a marionette controlled from without by the 
compulsions of intelligence." With the supersession of the instincts by 
intelligence as a dominant directive force in human affairs, man develops 
his civilization at the expense of his culture. The organization of society 
proceeds to its final fixity and crystallization similar to those of insect societies 
that have remained stable for 80 million years. Once intelligence finds 
its perfect solution it will not permit any deviation. Seidenberg's pessimis- 
tic conclusion is that the relentless pressure of his dominant intelligence- 
leads man at length to "the icy fixity of its final state in a post-historic age." 
"In a period devoid of change, we may truly say that man will enter upon 
a post-historic age in which, perhaps, he will remain encased in an endless 
routine and sequence of events, not unlike that of the ants, the bees, and 
the termites. Man may likewise find himself entombed in a perpetual 
round of perfectly adjusted responses." 

1 Science In the Changing World, p. 205. 


Combination and Harmony of Adjustment of Intelligence and Instincts 

From the evolutionary viewpoint Seidenberg's assumption of the 
priority of regulation of life by the instincts is untenable. In the human- 
kind the development of intelligence, the articulation, "canalisation," and 
symbolic fulfilment of instincts and the social integration are interdepen- 
dent. There is a harmony between instinct and intelligence, between 
affective and intellectual life which is favoured by natural selection. Among 
all vertebrates there is a subtle and intricate total adjustment of instinct and 
intelligence to the needs of the animal in its environment. Recent studies 
in bird behaviour have shown that many birds show considerable intelli- 
gence and ingenuity, and can do quite complicated things without ever 
being taught. The cuckoo species, studied by Edgar Chance, shows that 
of all animals the female cuckoo most resembles man in exercising a choice 
which fixes her offspring's environment. 1 Exposed from hatching to an 
alien environment for innumerable generations, the behaviour of the cuckoo, 
its instincts, are determined by its heredity. Its migrations and all its mal- 
practices follow the pattern of a parent it has never seen. Julian Huxley 
observes that birds have raised the emotion to the highest pitch found in 
animals. The line of mammals have done the same thing for intelligence. 
But, he adds that "because birds are mainly instinctive and not intelligent 
in their actions, it does not follow that their minds are lacking in intensity 
or variety", 2 The play and courtship of many birds show considerable 
skill and subtlety, wide range of powerful emotions and sense of enjoyment 
and even humour. All these indicate a fine blend of instinct and intelligence. 
Otto Kochler and his colleagues have shown that the number sense can be 
developed in many species of birds by careful training. Such counting 
ability hardly offers biological advantages to wild birds. Matthew's recent 
remarkable studies in bird migrations show that their sun-orientation 
mechanism shows a remarkable correlation between individual experience 
and inborn equipment. Migratory birds possess the innate ability to relate 
a given direction to the space-time standards innately provided and the 
observation of these standards to the knowledge of general topography and 
special land-marks gained from individual experience showing considerable 
intelligence as well as learning capacity. 3 Previous studies in the homing 
and migration flights of birds were impressed by the complexity of the 
action patterns of their inborn instincts, and neglected their intelligence 
and learning faculty. Recent startling developments of ethology show 
that among the animals birds are equipped with a complex, innate percep- 
tual organization, while the sensitiveness and fineness of adjustment of many 
organs of special sense of animals, now being investigated, were undreamt 

1 The Truth About the Cuckoo, 

2 Man Stands Alone. 

3 C.V.T. Matthews, Bird Navigation. 


of before. 1 Most intelligent animals in fact are no less driven by instincts. 
The formation of habits on their part releases the intelligence from atten- 
tion to routine, Trotter who defines instincts as "inherited modes of reac- 
tion to bodily needs or external reaction" observes : "Intelligence leaves 
its possessor no less impelled by instinct,, but endows him with the capacity 
to respond in a large variety of ways. V2 Intelligence devoting itself to the 
novel and unusual situations gradually develops as the product of natural 
selection for adaptability to the novelties, complexities and changing vicis- 
situdes of the environment, both physical and social. 

Dangers 1o Man ft cm the In; oads on both Intelligence c,tul Instincts 

Man's intelligence thrives on the novelty of the environment as well 
as on his freedom and opportunity to manipulate it as he chooses. Already 
the highly centralised, over-elaborate technological community shows 
signs of incapacity of the great multitudes of men and women with low 
average intelligence to cope with the intricate problems of organisation. 
Any diminution of the average level of human intelligence foretells biolo- 
gical disaster. Man cannot be split into a ruling species of highly intelli- 
gent, closely inbred people and a subordinate species of robots and morons. 
A reduction of the level of intelligence at the bottom will, inevitably, bring 
down the level of intelligence at the top. Man has continuously to push 
up the standards of intelligence for the many or perishes. The great danger 
from a highly organized collective society is not the supremacy of scientific, 
depersonalised intelligence, as Seidenberg forecabls, but the regression or 
atrophy of intelligence due to the diminution of the areas of individual 
responsibility and choice. If this continues on a large and intensive scale, 
the extinction of the human species is inevitable. For it will take millions 
of years for the human species to develop and perfect instincts and habits 
for smooth and automatic adjustment to the highly complex scientific and 
technological society of today. Man who is now intelligent and adaptable 
cannot evolve an insect society, dominated by instinct and inflexible physio- 
logical adaptation or polymorphism, but will have to leave the scene of the 
earth to be inherited by forms that have perfected instincts, such as the 
social insects, or by those birds and mammals which have shown a more 
harmonious integration of instinct and intelligence than he can achieve. 

The complexity and efficiency of social behaviour and organisation of 
Homo sapiens were, no doubt, achieved in the evolutionary sequence through 
a harmonious adjustment of instinct and intelligence. His danger now 
comes from the inroads of a highly standardised machine technology and 
a highly organized totalitarianism on both his intelligence and his instinctive 
and emotional life. Intelligence does not tend now to take place of the 

1 Thorpe : Some Implications of the Study of Animal Behaviour, The Scientific 
Monthly, June 1957. 

2 The Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War. 


instincts. That is not the drift of historic forces, as Seidenberg would have 
it. More and more the intelligent choice and judgment of modern man 
are thwarted and restricted in every sector of life by the increasing "con- 
ditioning," control and regimentation of society. 

The Many-sided Lapse of Human Self-Actticdisation and Spontaneity 

Regimentation is likely to increase in the future society and reduce 
man's freedom due to several contemporary economic and social trends. 
With the spread of modern medicine and sanitation the undeveloped regions, 
on account of the rapid and substantial reduction of mortality without cor- 
responding diminution of the present high birth-rate, will experience more 
and more the dangers of over-population and decline in their standard of 
living. This will lead to an increasing demand for the modification or 
overhauling of the economic structure and the development of a social 
welfare pattern of the State administering welfare services of all kinds. 
As the shortage of food and other consumer goods becomes acute and eco- 
nomic unrest becomes chronic, the pattern of the State will be pushed to- 
wards a totalitarian regime. There will be more and more State regulations 
and ordinances for rationing and regulation of production and distribution 
in all these undeveloped countries even where a Communist party or ideo- 
logy may not be strong and well-organised. Totalitarianism with the cent- 
ral government taking over more and more power and responsibility and 
aiming at a redistribution of property and income in the interests of social 
security and justice is likely to spread far and wide outside the ambit of 
communist blocs. Termites tend to multiply beyond the limits of subsis- 
tence. Over-population and extravagant depletion of resources drive them 
out of their nest and colony and disintegrate their social organisation. Bees, 
splendidly endowed with the acuity of senses, practical skills and social 
instincts, live completely regimented lives that shut out all evolutionary 
possibilities. Ants have established much stabler communities and deve- 
loped more mirvellous and divergent specialized adaptations to different 
possibilities of living than humans. But like bees they also show extremely 
rigid patterns of behaviour determined by inheritance, and icy fixity and 
statiomriness in their evolution, its unit being the compound colony rather 
than the individual. Over-population, over-specialisation and over-orga- 
nisation the triple biological errors of the social insects have significant 
warning lessons for human social evolution. Another social' trend that 
tends to reduce individual liberty and responsibility in human communities 
is administration by hierarchical systems. With the advance of modern 
technology the organisation whether of government, industry, agriculture 
or business tends to become more and more complicated, centralised and 
hierarchical. Mankind today in its advance from political to economic 
and social equality and from small-scale and simple to large-scale, elaborate 
and hierarchical administration in every field is faced with the fateful 


choice between totalitarianism and democracy in respect of the pattern of 
government with its profound impact upon basic personal rights and moral 
and spiritual values. Impersonal and technological forces are impelling 
modern man everywhere in the direction of less and less freedom and res- 
ponsibility and the imposition of more and more control and regimentation. 
Aldous Huxley asks the question, "In an age of over-population, over- 
organisation, and an ever-more efficient means of mass communication, 
how can we preserve the integrity and reassert the value of the human 
individual P" 1 In his affective and valuational life and experience, modern 
man on the contrary shows indeed, a remarkable lapse of self-awareness, 
self-actualisation and spontaneity. 
The Primacy of Secondary Human Goals and Satisfactions 

In any advanced civilization man substitutes specious and devious 
gratifications for biological instincts and fulfilments. He transforms, for 
instance, his hunger instinct into appetite, his sex instinct into romantic 
attachment, and his satisfaction of his primary wants into standard of com- 
fort and security. A highly sophisticated, civilized way of living tends 
to replace the natural biological values and norms of racial experience by 
culturally imposed, symbolic and often arbitrary and irrational values and 
norms quite out of harmony with the actual bio-social situations to which 
he must adjust. By superseding his primary, basic instincts and satisfactions 
by secondary, adventitious, devious and distorted goals and values, he 
loses normalcy of his mind and becomes a chronic victim of conflict and 

Yet, in spite of his being the unique conflictful and neurotic animal, 
indulging in repetitive and maladaptive symbolic behaviour, he can survive. 
This is due to several bio-psychological factors. First, his prolonged in- 
fancy and childhood and retardation of the growth process with the corre- 
lated complexity of his brain and nervous organisation adapt him to con- 
ditions of daily conflict and frustration in the fulfilment even of the 
major biological needs and satisfactions. Any imbalance between biolo- 
gical needs and social demands that results from the rigidity of social con- 
ditioning and chanelling may not lead to severe distress and pathological 
symptoms due to the potential mental flexibility of the individual on the one 
hand and the wide range of alternative goals and satisfactions offered by the 
social environment on the other. All societies and civilizations condition 
the human individual for variable degrees of repression and expression, 
constraint and stimulation of biological needs so that neurosis or psychosis 
to which he is uniquely prone is minimized. 

The Growing Age of Conflict and Anxiety 

Secondly, man's adaptation and survival techniques include symbolic 

of Freedom, 


living, interpretation and behaviour due to which conflict and frustration 
instead of provoking his aggressiveness may contribute towards sharpening 
his awareness, stimulating his thinking and imagination, and creating new 
outlets of productive expression through displacement, transfer, projection, 
sublimation and symbolisation. Modern studies of animal behaviour in- 
dicate striking parallels between the displacement activities of highly moti- 
vated animals in conflict or frustration situations and many non-adjusted 
human actions familiar to psychopathology. 1 Due to the conflict between 
two competitive drives, or the environment not providing adequate out- 
lets, the pattern of animal behaviour is "displaced" from its original goal 
and becomes an expressive ritual revealing the tension of the organism and 
hardly embodying adaptive value. 2 

Thirdly, man shows a polarity or ambivalence of impulses, emotions 
and attitudes, love and hate, tenderness and aggressiveness, sadism and 
masochism, life and death. Such polarity or ambivalence enables him to 
maintain his adaptive balance through displacement and repression of 
undesirable biological drives, through inversion into their opposites and 
through their introjection into self. These mechanisms, however, are not 
completely adequate for the resolution of inner tensions and conflicts due 
to frustration. Obviously, the large and complex brain of the human species 
can shape and sustain symbolic non-adaptive, even disadvantageous patterns 
of behaviour. It is only when these become too numerous and repetitive 
that man's happiness, wholeness and even survival are in jeopardy. His 
high intelligence and imagination, his excessive sophistication and inventive- 
ness may, indeed endanger the species through a dislocation between his 
biological needs and satisfactions and non-adaptive symbolic modes of 
experience and behaviour. The evolutionary process is yet to test the 
entirely new symbolic patterns man has now created and multiplied in his 
fore -brain and in his behaviour and experience. 

Accordingly, the chronic internal conflict and anxiety which are asso- 
ciated with a highly sophisticated and pathological culture, marked by 
persistent and institutionalised dissociation between biological needs and 
social demands, tend to depress consciousness, lead to illusion and halluci- 
nation and provoke fear and anxiety with aggressive reactions. Man's 
present state of biological evolution and the present highly sophisticated 
and standardized character of his civilization have made him chronically 
vulnerable to anomie, neurosis or psychosis. He does not show a domi- 
nating intelligence but rather becomes increasingly vegetative and bovine, 
and also acquires a perverted scale of goals and values that are dissociated 
from biologically normal goals and satisfactions. The artificial and distorted 

1 Russell Davis, Some Applications of Behaviour Theory in Psychopathology, British 
Journal of Medical Psycho logy > 1954, pp. 216-223, 
* Tinbergen, The Study of Instinct. 


mores and moralities of modern civilization increasingly replace the natural 
biological balance which is man's hereditary endowment. It is this dis- 
sociation which results in his widespread and increasing neurosis and 
psychosis. Mankind has, indeed, entered into the Age of Conflict and 
Anxiety. Trigant Burrow has analysed the "dhensional" conflicts bet- 
ween man's biological or phyletically determined nature and the unnatural 
and pernicious figments of his cultural codes, and stressed the racial or phylic 
nature of man's widespread social disorder. He remarks : "Undoubtedly 
individuals and social communities are in need of a basic alteration in be- 
haviour-adaptation, but they will find this needed alteration only through 
specific physiological adjustments internal to themselves." 1 

Recovery of Wio-sodal Normalcy 

The neurologist Herrick agrees with Burrow's etiology of bio-social 
disease. He considers that the most promising approach to the acute 
problems of human adjustments is, first, to learn what the native capacities 
of individual persons are and the biological norms of adaptive behaviour 
for each of these patterns, and then so to train the persons that their think- 
ing and the resulting behaviour will be biologically normal rather than per- 
verted by pernicious ideologies that lead inevitably to inappropriate conduct 
and often to personal and social disease. 2 

Another* necessary approach is that the modern media of mass com- 
munication viz. press, radio, cinema and television should be wisely con- 
trolled and discriminate ly used and prevented from conducting publicity 
and propaganda of any kind, whether for indoctrination with a type of 
political ideology or advertisement for any kind of consumption goods 
from a car to a soap. All new techniques of mass communication tend to 
by-pass man's intellect and appeal to his lower impulses and desires, fears 
and anxieties, leaving him an impoverished, impulsive, irrational, day 
dreaming creature. His thinking, feeling and behaviour arc conditioned 
by various social spells and compulsions engineered by pressure groups, 
by a factitious system of beliefs, goals and values that may be out of accord 
with the actual situations to which he must intelligently and rationally adjust. 

It is hardly realised by the general public how artfully and insidiously 
the multi-million dollar advertising agencies today manipulate and purchase 
their decisions and preferences in respect of the consumption of goods 
through the use of techniques and methods of what business men call 
'motivation analysis' derived from psychology, psychiatry and the social 
sciences. Vance Packard in an interesting study points out how exten- 
sively and cunningly advertising agencies are now using psychiatric probing 
techniques on little children. It is amazing how easily the consumer's 

1 Trigant Burrow, Science and Man's Behaviour. 
9 The Evolution of Human Nature, p. 182. 


thought, emotion and habit can be conditioned by psychological strategies. 
Packard observes : "Public-relations experts are advising churchmen how 
they can become more effective manipulators of their congregations. In 
some cases these persuaders even choose our friends for us, as at a large 
'community of tomorrow' in Florida. Friends are furnished along with 
the linen by the management in offering the homes for sale. Everything 
comes in one big, glossy package." 1 The role of modern advertisement 
through the newspaper, radio, film and television is as astute and perni- 
cious as political propaganda corroding the values of individual responsi- 
bility and freedom essential for the development of a free society. In fact, 
advertisement for commercial purpose and political publicity and propa- 
ganda are cognate, disguised and meretricious forms of social pressure that 
are linked with each other, effectively assailing the mental basis for the human 
individual, conditioned to visual and verbal tricks and symbols calling 
out his emotional responses that are as artificial as those of dogs salivat- 
ing at the sound of the tuning fork. 

Aldous Huxley forecasts that the dictatorships of the future will be 
very unlike those we are familiar with in the immediate past as they will 
adopt no longer methods of terror or physical violence but new techniques 
and devices of propaganda including 'subliminal projection' and beginning 
at an early age. Thus children will be 'television and radio fodder' and 
grow up as loyal ideologists in dictatorships. The techniques of the so- 
called "brain-washing" applied to political prisoners in the U.S.S.R. and 
China indicate to what extent man's physiology and psychology can be 
played upon until he completely breaks down and then a new idea can be 
planted in his mind. Such methods, when applied for the training of young 
administrators, may produce a race of completely one-pointed fanatics and 
missionaries. Huxley also thinks that the pharmacological revolution that 
has taken place has brought to light certain powerful mind-changing drugs 
which may be used for propaganda purposes. Physiologically and psycho- 
logically these drugs can alter the mental state but leave terrible results 
morally and in every other way. 2 Psychological technology, like atomic 
technology, is not evil by itself. But there is great danger that the modern 
highly efficient devices of mass communication, especially radio, television 
and subliminal projection may be used harmfully on an elaborate scale for 
conditioning and controlling the human individual and suppressing his 
reasonable and intelligent choices and values, whether in respect of con- 
sumption goods and services or political doctrines and programmes, in- 
sidiously and malignly as experimental work in the psychological laboratory 
advances in this field. 

More and more the intelligent, discriminative and rational man is 

1 The liidden Persuaders. 

8 The Listener, September n, 1958; The Scientific Monthly, July, 1957. 


converted into the unintelligent, indiscriminative and unwise crowd or 
mass man due to the misapplication of modern advances in psychological 
techniques for the purpose of propaganda. Such propaganda is repeated 
a thousand times and appeals to the lowest intelligence quotient for reach- 
ing the mass in space with maximum efficiency. Here is, no doubt, an un- 
precedented psychological phenomenon of the mass of humanity respond- 
ing to "conditioning" in the Pavlovian sense with corresponding regression 
of intelligence. No wonder that man here and there violently reacts to the 
social situation where his choice and decision are invaded continuously, 
and his rational behaviour at the symbolic level sought to be replaced by 
-universal conditioned reflex. Such defence reaction is as true of modern 
civilized society as the chronic abuse of psychological technology. Like 
personal stress and strain and neurosis and psychosis, "the revolt of the 
masses" or the proletariat, as has been discerned by Ortega Gasset, Aldous 
Huxley, Toynbee and Katherine Horney, among others, has become a basic 
symptom of widespread bio-social disease in modern communities. The 
chronic restlessness and upheaval of the masses are the outcome at once of 
the regression of intelligence, due to mass conditioning, and of the regres- 
sion of the affective life due to the discord between the symbolic universe 
of man and his biologic instincts and values. 

The fate of Homo sapiens rests as much on the recovery of his creative 
intelligence and knowledge, which must depend upon his larger freedoms, 
responsibilities and opportunities to plan his resources and way of living 
in his own manner in every field of life as on the richness and manifoldness 
of instinctive satisfactions, values and meanings he can derive from the 
concreteness and immediacy of his life experience. It is a paradox that the 
most intelligent animal on the earth which has experienced an incredible 
growth of knowledge and increase of power that cross the boundaries of 
space and time remains earth-bound and time-bound in his instincts and 
gratifications. Man is a thinker as well as an actor on the scene of the earth. 
He cannot think, nor in a true sense live and survive unless he achieves a 
harmony between instinct and intelligence, and builds his experience with 
reference to the antinomic modes, complementary each to the other, of 
emotion and reason, value and rational action, immediacy and eternity. 



Man's Biological Future 

Modern man exhibits grave disvalues and crises in every dimension 
of his living, ecological, biological, social and ideal that threaten his survi- 
val. The instability of man is due to the composition of human nature 
itself fashioned in the long course of his biological evolution. This has 
endowed him with hereditary impulses and strivings that are generalised 
and lead to a considerable flexibility of his adaptation. He has evolved 
away from a stereotyped set of instincts and adjustments. The pattern of 
his instincts, goals and behaviour is largely socially conditioned, canalised 
and oriented. From the impact of the social environment on his motiva- 
tions, values and behaviour proceed both his triumph and defeat, glory 
and degradation. Homo sapiens in the twentieth century, i.e. after one hund- 
red thousand years of his emergence, has become Homo instabilis. 

Homo sapiens is, no doubt, the end-product of the evolutionary process, 
and in its last phase responsible for furthering it. But his bio-social and 
cultural back-slidings, defeats and regressions now for the first time engen- 
der doubts about the continuity of the species. The Atomic Age which we 
have entered is fateful for mankind. It is fraught with the near possibility 
that man, due to his folly, wickedness and violence, may make his exit 
from the earth, its scene for one thousand centuries, leaving it to be ruled 
by certain mammals, birds or social insects. This should focus the attention 
of all human knowledge to human potentialities as distinct from human 
actualities. The social sciences, including even psychology, sociology and 
ethics, are, however, still mainly concerned with human actualities, and 
disregard how man, the unconscious or conscious agent of evolution, can 
develop his possibilities, create higher values and may not abandon his 
true evolutionary role. Nothing exposes their doctrinaire character and 
futility than this, since it is quite evident that the progress of evolution in its 
moral or cultural phase is now seriously checkmated. Not before the social 
sciences root themselves in a fundamental "general" theory of human 
evolution can they develop adequate tools and methods of analysis of human 
nature and potentialities, values and disvalues, and aid man in playing his 
true evolutionary role. Homo instabilis requires urgently a correct natural 
history of Homo sapiens. 

A fundamental 'general* theory of human evolution includes the 
human biological and ecological theories, the psychological theories of 
persons and values, the sociological theory of dialectic, and the theories of 


morals, religion and education, and obviously rests on making values central 
in the evolutionary picture of Man. Out of his multi-dimensional adjust- 
ments in society and culture, man develops values that enhance, elevate 
and refine social relations and processes making his adjustments easy and 
smooth. Without meanings and values, human evolution cannot be under- 
stood in its true significance, nor subjected to methodical observation, 
comparison and experiment. Human evolution, in fact, is a deepening, 
expansion, accumulation and communication of meanings and values the 
patterns of wholes, rhythms or harmonies which in the environment where- 
these are set up promote its evolution to perfection. Man alone among 
the animals has a universe, to use Gehlen's expression. Due to the momen- 
tous biological event represented by the discovery and application of radio- 
logy each man finds himself today simultaneously present in, and experienc- 
ing the happenings of, every nook and corner of the planet. There is no 
fragment of the universe which is irrelevant to his meanings, interests and 
values. The reality to which he adapts himself comprehends the entire 
cosmos. Man precisely because of his deficiency in organic and instinctual 
adaptation to a prescribed narrow environment is able to enlarge it inde- 
finitely. He creates his own unlimited environment which is called human 
culture. From the evolutionary point of view, the interdependence bet- 
ween man rising to his full heritage of a world culture and the organisation 
of mankind as a whole holds the key to the further advance of the human 
species. Such interchange is represented by meanings, values and faiths 
rising to cosmic dimensions the experiences and norms of the ambient 
world of future man. 

For the definition of man's biological future, the general theory of 
human evolution measures values and also social relations and institutions, 
regarded as shelters and nurseries of values according to the dual criteria, 
viz., the maturation and expression of the World Individual and the integ- 
ration and harmony of World Culture. This corresponds to Whitehead's 
definition of the epitomised highly general key-values that mankind has 
created, selected and consolidated through the chequered process of his- 
tory viz., the full development and expression of human individuality and 
uniqueness, or love and the generality of harmony, order and peace. 

No human desires and strivings, no groups and institutions can be 
regarded as biologically "valuable" in the present crisis of mankind, if 
these do not satisfy the dual criteria, viz., the development and integration 
of World Man and the solidarity of Mankind-as-a whole. 

Man's Common Pool of Traditions in relation to His Potentialities 

As human evolution progresses, it more and more differentiates itself 
from the biological evolution through the development of a pool or re- 
servoir of traditions and culture operated by shared and transmissible moti- 
vation, value and symbol systems. The common pool of traditions, values 


and symbols is in the course of human history indefinitely extended from 
familism, tribalism and nationalism to a world system, that unites the sepa- 
rate sub-groups or peoples into which mankind is divided, and replace their 
mechanisms of internecine competition, violence and power by those of 
mutual understanding, appreciation and cooperation. The gradual accumu- 
lation and dissemination of science, arts and knowledge, the rise and spread 
of a sense of values in the globe, and their translation into action and the 
conscious policy of peoples and nations towards the achievement of world 
peace and solidarity build up a common heritage for mankind. These 
are all crucial features in the new evolution, carrying the means of control 
over the old evolution. 

The French scientist and philosopher Teilhard de Chardin uses the 
terms "noosphere" to denote the enveloping global cultural stratum within 
which the mind of the human species dwells as distinguished from the 
"biosphere" denoting the aggregate of the organic inhabitants of the earth, 1 
The human mind with its shared ideas, feelings and values and its standards 
of truth, goodness and beauty can only exist within the framework of human 
society and culture that ever enlarge their boundaries. These foster and 
determine truths, morals and values and are in their turn reshaped by the 
latter. The universe of the animal's bodily needs and emotions is extremely 
restricted in both time and space. Man's universe of ideas, sentiments 
and values, which constitutes the cultural stratum within which he comes 
into existence mentally and spiritually, is ever extended and enriched as it 
deepens and refines the mind of all mankind. Hitherto narrow and ego- 
centric, he participates in the ideas, values and experiences of other selves, 
and not only builds up a society and a civilization that are temporal but 
creates eternal and universal objects abstract symbols of the spirit. His 
primary moral responsibility towards truths and values arises from the 
fact that in the cosmic perspective of space and time he is the only creature 
endowed with values and the capacity to choose and strive after them. 
Value-seeking and value-striving are, therefore, man's cosmic vocations. 
It is the supreme instinct and capacity of man to live in the ultimate veri- 
ties and timeless and universal values amidst the finitudes and contingen- 
cies, restrictions and distortions of his life. Such verities and values are 
eternal and ubiquitous elements of the "noosphere" in which the human 
mind and spirit live and thrive on this earth. With man's responsibility 
for understanding, appreciation and use of the "noosphere" any action of 
his that may disrupt it becomes sacrilegious. He can achieve his evolu- 
tionary destiny only when he can participate effectively in the entire "noos- 
phere" of the earth, maintain and operate effectively a common world sys- 
tem of human knowledge, appreciation and consecration. 

The Phenomenon of Man, pp. 180-184. 


In the human realm the violent, wasteful and purposeless methods 
of natural selection operative in organic evolution are largely superseded 
by the selection of cultural techniques and traditions comprising the human 
"noosphere." Competition, struggle and mastery are lifted to the dimen- 
sions of myths, ideologies and values and the social and economic institu- 
tions derived from them. Not the "noosphere" of a particular people or 
culture, but the whole "noosphere" of the earth acts as the sieve of human 
selection and survival. Simultaneously man in his person, values and 
purposes reaches out to the cosmic dimension. Evolution in the "noos- 
phere" as contrasted with the "biosphere" becomes cosmic in its aim, and 
creates and deploys the instruments and mechanisms of symbols, truths and 
values that are cosmic and universal. 

As more meaning, value and morality come to enter into the relations 
of men, groups, classes and nations and the cultural techniques overlie and 
overcome the techniques of struggle, coercion and domination, man be- 
comes more cosmically human and introduces his own directiveness into 
the cosmic evolutionary process. Having emerged out of cosmic evolu- 
tion neither as an accident nor as its inevitable product, he has invested 
it with his own sense of values, goals and purposes. Evolution at the 
psycho-social dimension has become much more flexible, subtle and in- 
clusive than organic evolution, depending on the acquisition and transmis- 
sion of knowledge, learning and morality. Man's cultural heritage during 
the millennia of his life-history has so controlled and modified the mecha- 
nisms of his natural selection that these have now become largely retrogres- 
sive in their consequences. 

The Genetic Handicaps of Man 

Human evolution, to be sure, is at present at a stage of critical transi- 
tion. Mankind is gradually passing from the stage of unconscious, un- 
planned and haphazard evolution to that of its conscious direction and 
control. At every step it is, however, handicapped not only by its lack of 
adequate biological knowledge and experience but also by its excessive 
hereditary endowments of anger, aggressiveness and sex. Rage and aggres- 
siveness lead to chronic outbursts of coercion, brutality, violence and war. 
Hyper-sexuality leads to overbreeding, sadism and sexual aberrations of all 
kinds. Both trends, equally rooted in man's lop-sided instinctive disposi- 
tions, are psycho-pathologically linked with each other, and constantly 
threaten the regression of the species. 

Yet civilization implies a deliberate planning of man's advance through 
steady, thorough-going and effective limitation of his ego-centric antisocial 
impulses and emotions and the range of his violence, exploitation and 
deceit. The ego-centric and aggressive dispositions die hard, while though 
sympathy, compassion and non-violence are largely extended, these trends 
are not assimilated to the genetic equipment of an appreciable section of 


the race. Due to his inadequate knowledge of the mechanisms of heredity 
and deficiency in eugenic attention and attitude, man cannot adopt the 
method of genetic change for controlling and directing his evolution. He 
can and does consciously and deliberately select and breed domestic animals 
and plants, but with regard to his own genetic characteristics and possibi- 
lities he is helpless and heedless. Planned genetic transformation, if it 
were possible for humankind, would have quickly replaced natural by 
artificial selection, and led to a conspicuous and rapid improvement of the 
genetic constitution of the race and the entire level of its achievements 
and potentials. 

Unconsciously, however, mankind directs human evolution through 
the system of human breeding it adopts that is linked with the status-system 
of a culture. It is the mating groups with their conventional boundaries 
of class, status, profession or occupation within the community that through 
sexual discrimination and segregation select culturally and genetically the 
patterns of human attributes and values which a particular society or culture 

Besides, mankind unconsciously controls human evolution through 
laws and punishments, medical and educational systems and measures of 
taxation. As the consequences of such political actions are carefully studied 
and appraised, a planned direction of human evolution may emerge in the 
future. Punitive or rehabilitative programmes of punishment of crime 
affect differently the reproduction of criminal groups. Poor laws and 
administrative measures against vagrancy and pauperism affect the repro- 
duction of shiftless and improvident groups. Medical treatment of physi- 
cally and mentally handicapped persons preserves many tainted genes which 
otherwise would have died out. The preservation for life and reproduction 
of the hereditary weaklings indirectly promotes the multiplication of child- 
ren with genetic defects and infirmities, who in their turn would come 
to hospitals and other agencies for saving their lives and earning their 
livelihood. The advances in medical science through saving the genetically 
unfit brings more unfitness into the world and more inheritance of the 
factors that promote unfitness. Some biologists point out, however, that 
the rise in the rate of harmful mutations and the consequent increase of the 
incidence of inherited weakness would take a few hundred generations to 
produce their full effects. A programme of compulsory schooling and 
free education at all levels leads to qualitative changes of the population 
in the long run, while its immediate favourable effects are also discernible 
on mating boundaries what are crystallized as exogamy and endogamy 
in old sedentary civilizations like those of India and South-east Asia. 

A system of progressive taxation and a programme of social security 
in general and family allowances in particular influence differential fertility 
and mortality. Birth-control and free distribution of contraceptives in 


State hospitals and clinics on one side, and a family allowance programme 
on the other change the motivations in respect of the size of the family 
within a short period, and produce significant demographic results. Ger- 
many, Italy and Japan are glaring instances of countries which have increased 
or reduced their birth-rates within a short period through appropriate 
population policies sponsored by the State and accepted as parts of the 
family mores. A qualitative improvement of population, especially the 
growth and diffusion of intelligence, may result from the processes of elimi- 
nation, called "negative" eugenic programmes, aimed at the sterilization 
of persons with congenital defects, usually fecble-mindedness and mental 

Recent advances in genetics including the study of the inheritance of 
specific psychological attributes in man are clarifying and stressing the so- 
cial role of marriages in human advance. Marriages of individuals with 
various types of physical and mental defects and maladies are already pro- 
hibited by legislation in many advanced countries; while public opinion 
favours marriages endowed with positive potentials for the enrichment 
of the human stock. This will be evident from the following declaration 
of the Pope : 

"As far as possible, deficiencies already in evidence must be remedied 
and care must be taken that hereditary factors even of little value be not 
allowed to deteriorate stil) further by fusing them with a homozygote 
partner. On the other hand, it must be seen that positive characteristics 
at their full value join with those whose hereditary patrimony is similar." 1 
We should, however, be a little cautious in respect of the promise of posi- 
tive eugenics due to the present rudimentary knowledge about it. One 
of the leading geneticists of the world, J.B.S. Haldane, considers that at 
present we do not know of a single rare gene in man whose frequency we 
should increase. He observes, "The discovery of rare and desirable genes 
in man will need a vast programme of collaboration between geneticists, 
physiologists and psychologists. Until even one such gene is known, it 
seems to me rather futile to talk about a programme for positive eugenics." 2 
But negative eugenics does promise favourable biological consequences 
though not to the extent as often imagined. Throughout the world nega- 
tive eugenic measures are likely to be adopted by Governments, and more 
and more people with harmful dominants may be persuaded to refrain from 
reproduction either by continence or by contraception. This may lead to 
the propagation of intelligence and social feeling but obviously at an ex- 
ceedingly tardy rate. Artificial insemination that has been already adopted 
by England may also have a direct consequence on the propagation of 

1 Quoted in Murphy : Human Potentialities t p. 227. 

8 Human Evolution, Past and Future in Whit Burnett (Ed.) : This is My Philosophy. 


intelligence. 1 The rigidity of the breeding system connected with the strati- 
fication of communities into classes and castes which remain more or less 
closed groups will no doubt be gradually relaxed in the future as the result 
of egalitarian social trends especially in the democratic countries. This 
will improve the genetic attributes of the population. Darlington observes: 
"Throughout history there has been a crystallization by inbreeding, thit 
is, relative inbreeding of tribes, classes, castes, and races. Ever and 
anon this crystallization has been interrupted by the opposite process of 
melting and fusionw hen the barriers to mating, for a decisive moment 
or for a whole generation or more, break down and new groups are formed 
following conquest, revolution, famine, pestilence and adventurous migra- 
tion." 2 The process of democratisation, as it is enlarged and deepened, 
will lead to the dispersal of the pools of chromosomes. As new mating 
groups will appear, the patterns of culture will change. Similar long- 
range or evolutionary consequences may follow in democratic communities 
from the reformation of classes both culturally and genetically conditioned 
as were evident due to racial admixture in the New World in the last cen- 
tury. Legislation promoting the decline of illegitimacy is also enacted by 
many civilized governments. This may also influence the quality of the 
population favourably. 

The Dysgenic Trend of Populations 

Very few modern countries consciously adopt and implement a ratio- 
nally conceived demographic and eugenic policy. The majority of the 
nations show concern with politics, rather than with the elemental forces 
of human biology that govern in the long run their capacities and possibi- 
lities. By and large, most nations now show on the contrary dysgenic 
trends of growth. The more intelligent and more capable groups in most 
cultures tend to have a lower birth-rate than the average people. Both 
the adoption of contraception and the extension of medical facilities are 
largely responsible for the dysgenic trend of mankind, viz., the faster multip- 
lication of strains that show lower intelligence capacity and heritable educa- 
bility. Cyril Burt estimates that by the end of the present century there 
will be in Great Britain half as many children of scholarship ability as there 
are at present and twice as many defectives, while the average intelligence 
of the population as a whole will have declined by five Intelligence Quotient 
points. The same rapid deterioration of the quality of population will 
be marked in all advanced countries in Europe and America, especially in 
those that will show stationary or declining numbers. 3 Darlington remarks: 
"Races, classes and individuals of technically backward types, which would 
not be capable of surviving unassisted, are now multiplying out of 

1 Darlington : The Control of Evolution in Man, Nature, 1958, 14. 

8 Darlington : The Facts of Life, p. 286. 

8 Burt : Intelligence and Fertility; also Anastasi : Psychological Bulletin, 1956. 


proportion to those races, classes and individuals to whose initiative and 
intelligence they owe their multiplication." 1 

The dysgenic trend is particularly true of Asian peoples who show 
a higher average birth-rate than the world rate. Biologically speaking, 
parents of brge families are undesirable genetically. Accordingly, the 
teeming millions of Asia exhibit the menace of both over-population and 
mispopulation. The races of Asia who with their improvident prolificness 
already represent more than half of the world's humanity may materially 
contribute to bring down the world standard of living as well as the quality 
of world population if they continue their present high birth-rates, at the 
same time increasingly curbing death-rates by medical programmes. Only 
a few prolific nations can, therefore, alter the course of history or of human 

Over-pop ;tltit ion and the Eiuhgica! Decline of Mankind 

Man endangers his biological future more by excessive multiplication 
than perhaps by any other social process. Most gregarious mammals avoid 
excessive breeding through a variety of ecological controls such as migra- 
tion, modification of the system of eating and being eaten and territory 
system. The social insects practise massacre and swarming along with 
the adoption of polymorphism and discriminative larval feeding and nurture 
to bring down numbers. In spite of theo peration of a subtle, inter-weaving 
chain of ecologic checks and balances that establish an equilibrium, how- 
ever viable, between animal populations and iheir environment, an essential 
condition for organic evolution is the process of natural selection due to 
animal numbers outrunning food supplies in limited overcrowded environ- 
ments. In human evolution the same inexorable biological law, so stri- 
kingly applied by Malthus, prevails if men persistently outstrip their existing 
and potential resources, and at the time increase economic pressure and 
competition through overlap of the environments of different peoples as 
the result of migration, commerce and scientific and technological advance. 
On the other hand, it is through the acceptance of controlled parenthood 
that the human species can direct its own evolution without the dangers 
of prolificness. Fertility is both the cause and effect of natural selection 
among plants, animals and humans. An adaptive level of human fertility 
through a world-wide adoption of birth-control is the only way of achieving 
freedom from poverty and severe environmental pressure, i.e. from "the 
law of the jungle" among half, and possibly two-thirds of humanity today. 
An essential prerequisite of planned human evolution is, no doubt, planned 
reproduction. This implies that man should civilize sex and develop pro- 
per reproductive habits and attitudes that can ensure the optimum size and 
quality of his family in relation to his material standards and ideal goals 

1 The Facts of Life, p. 335; also Medawar : The Future of Man, p. 86. 


and values of living. 

The Need of a Global Population Policy 

Population and family planning adopted as a world programme can 
alone in the present world demographic crisis safeguard the living standards 
of the species and counteract its qualitative decline, at the same time assuring 
its economic stability and peace. The economically unified world cannoc 
remain half famine-stricken and miserable, and half affluent and luxurious. 
The sudden explosion of European population during the last century 
and half and European colonialism were responsible for an unprecedented 
disparity of living standards between the privileged and under-privileged 
peoples of the earth. Two-thirds of humanity now consume less than 
5 per cent, of the primary materials. Three-fourths are living below 
sub-human standards. The privileged minority in order to maintain and 
develop a highly sophisticated standard of material comfort has been simul- 
taneously depleting the world's exhaustible resources at a most alarming 
rate. The world's supply of oil and important minerals cannot last be- 
yond twenty-five years foreshadowing world-wide misery for the entire 

The population policy in the modern age must accordingly be global. 
It should include not only family planning among the under-developed 
peoples, but also no further increase of the high material standard of living 
of the affluent nations. 

Firstly, an organised movement for family planning supported both 
by the State and intelligentsia is crucial for the welfare and progress of the 
under-developed peoples and for world stability. Family planning should 
be adopted in under-developed countries not as an isolated and piece-meal 
programme but integrated with an over-all movement of education, social 
security and equality that may be conducive towards a new outlook in the 

Secondly, the standard of living of the favoured peoples should have 
some relationship to their habitat. It should depend not on the exhaustion 
of limited and irreplaceable natural resources anywhere on the earth, but 
rather on the preference of flow or revolving to fund or exhaustible resources, 
even at the expense of economic value, and calling for a sacrifice of the 
present for future generations. Depletion of scarce resources anywhere 
is shrinkage of the economic base everywhere. 

Thirdly, the affluent nations who are now in a position to satisfy all their 
felt wants should not further augment their already high standard of mater- 
ial comfort, but divert their surplus savings for the economic development of 
under-developed regions. This is necessary for the stability of world economy 
and of their own social structure. It implies a reorientation of the value 
and culture pattern of affluent societies in the direction more of non-material 
goods and services, leading to new dimensions and qualities of human 


living and adventure. 1 A global population policy will contribute to- 
wards the gradual raising of the average longevity of peoples from thirty 
or less to sixty or more. It will mean that the majority of populations 
in both old and new hemispheres will show a preponderance of the higher 
age-grcups from forty five and over. A larger and larger number of per- 
sons will survive into their seventh to hundredth decade. There will be 
a far greater social premium placed on youth, and also on the value of 
peaceful, leisure-time pursuits for an increasing proportion of the popu- 
lation which reaches beyond the young age. This is bound to raise the 
problem of war and peace most acutely in the biological dimension. While 
the biological decline of mankind is linked with numerical increase, biolo- 
gical progress is linked with a restrained growth of population. Without 
the global population being considerably less than at present, an improve- 
ment of the human quality is not possible. A hungry, raging multibillion 
human population, conditioned by diminishing returns and increasing social 
pressures and constraints, cannot foster the emergent qualities of vigour, 
longevity and enterprise as well as of mind, personality and values. 
Over-organisation and Biological Decline 

Equally with many species of animals man brings about his own 
biological deterioration through an excessive specialization of functions, 
values and capacities. In animal evolution the excessive specialization of 
organs and functions, adapted to a particular ecological niche of the environ- 
ment and to a specific way of living, operates as a bar to further major orien- 
tations and advances. Many social insects, for instance, have shown no 
modification for millions of years though they are most closely adjusted to 
the specific ecological conditions and pressures of the environment they 
exploit. The instinctive way of social living is at its best with ants, bees 
and termites, but it is a rigidly stereotyped and inflexible pattern through- 
out the entire course of each short life of individuals. Man's complex, 
materialistic and technological culture, which comprises the world culture 
of today, markedly increases his regimentation and curtails his creative 
intelligence, freedom and responsibility everywhere. More and more his 
goals and values and his behaviour adaptation are also conditioned by 
various social compulsions. Over-organisation and over-specialization, 
associated with modern machine technology, and over-conditioning, asso- 
ciated with modern media of mass communication, tend to atrophy human 
intelligence, and develop habits of smooth and automatic adjustment at the 
lower instinct and reflex level characteristic of ants, bees and termites. 
Such trends challenge the harmonious blending of instinct with intelligence, 
and of emotion with reason, on which man's biological supremacy is largely 
based. His specialization in the direction of more and more social control, 

1 Mukerjee, Population and Hman Values, Address before the International Conferenc 
for Planned Parenthood, 1959. 


conditioning and automatism and lapse of his self-awareness and sponta- 
neity spell as much biological peril as the sorts of over-specialization that 
led to the extinction of many large predatory reptiles. 

For human evolution, cultural isolation that arises out of an opposition 
to contacts with the outside world, sense of racial superiority, chauvinism 
or an extremely narrow and rigid conformity to certain social and economic 
systems and ideologies also represent lop-sided specializations in cultural 
techniques that are biologically harmful and retrogressive. These hinder 
the interpenetration and cross-fertilization of the noetic system that alone 
can assure man's further advance. Only a shared noetic system can nur- 
ture and develop the unpredictable potentialities of men living within the 
ambits of different cultures. 

The Dual Phases and Mechanisms of Human 'Evolution : World Man and World 

Biological evolution has now come to a dead end except in the human 
sector. Julian Huxley estimates that the insects reached a dead end thirty 
million years ago, birds a little later and all the main lines of higher mammals 
except the primates at about the same time. 1 As long as man does not 
annihilate himself but continues to exist in his particular life zone, there is 
no possibility of any other animal to compete with him in intelligence, 
social organisation and use of tools and to oust him. "Man's general envi- 
ronment," observes Simpson, "was among the last to be filled by life. 
It is really legitimate to go beyond this and to point out that man's parti- 
cular adaptive type was the latest to be developed up to now in the history 
of life, one radically new, never before exemplified, and with extreme poten- 
tialities of expansion." 2 It is the depth, richness and creativeness of 
the human mind, personality and values and the enlargement of the 
human community that reveal progress in conscious or social evolution. 
The two are facets of the same evolutionary movement marking a higher 
stage of human advance. On the one hand, a more integrated, self-actual is- 
ing and self- transcend ing man contributes to psycho-social evolution by 
the increased realisation of his potentialities. On the other hand, a more 
united world or increased solidarity of the human species makes the evolu- 
tionary process operative more consciously, hence more freely and effi- 
ciently. The phases or mechanisms of progress in the future for the human 
sector are, accordingly, two-fold, viz., the building up of a common stock 
of traditions for mankind or a World Civilization and the development of 
open, free World Men. These are interdependent. Within the structure 
of a common world civilization the world man emerges in reciprocally 
understanding, appreciative and cooperative groups of nations and cultures. 
Its fundamental mechanism is the assimilation by each and every culture 
of the intellectual and cultural techniques and traditions of the age that 

1 Evolutionary Ethics, pp. 36-37. 

2 The Meaning of Evolution, p. 2 


may be unified into a universal symbol system of comprehension. The more 
a given culture profits from the vast, accumulated and organised knowledge 
of the sciences, arts and humanities of mankind, the more can it develop 
the potentialities of the individuals within it as they actively participate in 
fresh intellectual adventures with their unpredictable values and experiences. 
Scientific thought and knowledge have been unified today into a compre- 
hensive world picture, embracing cosmic, physical and biological nature 
that will gradually win world recognition and acceptance. As modern 
science and technology spread and disseminate, there will be no nations, 
nor cultures nor social and economic systems left that will be ruled by 
magic, superstition and purely dogmatic formulations. More peoples 
of the world will enjoy freedom from want, from ignorance, from fear, 
from ill-health and from suffering, and will demand more science, more 
technology, and more knowledge. There will be greater appreciation in 
the world of the unity and universality of the human evolutionary process 
with indefinite possibilities of fulfilment yet unrealised by the under-privi- 
leged peoples and cultures. Larger areas of the earth and greater numbers 
of the world population will understand and consciously identify them- 
selves with the integration and progress of mankind-as-a whole instead of 
acting as hindrances and drags. 

Mankind's improved scientific understanding of the cosmos from 
atoms to galaxies and from individuals to human civilizations reveals the 
pool of world knowledge as a microcosm which both reflects the cosmos, 
and controls and directs cosmic, including human evolution. Correspond- 
ingly, there is an increase of pressure towards the unification of mankind 
for survival and progress through world-wide economic and political insti- 
tutions, and the symbolic agencies of art, morality and religion, equally 
operative on a planetary scale. The scientific picture of the unity of the 
earth and the symbolic picture of the moral and spiritual oneness of man- 
kind tend to coalesce. This results in unparalleled vigour and intensity 
of the system of world symbols, traditions and culture. The latter will 
absorb and assimilate all individual cultures and transform highly indivi- 
dualized persons of specific nations and cultures into world-individuals. 
For evolutionary advance of the human species there are two constructive 
forces of the highest potential : the altruistic conscience and missionary 
fervour of the integrated, self-transcending world-individual who surpasses 
the state, nation and culture; and the creativeness and intensity of the system 
of global understanding, appreciation and cooperation. 

Conscience, the Agent and Drive of Human Evolution 

Modern exploration of the unconscious processes of the human mind 
reveals that man can undertake the dominant role in the collective adven- 
ture of global unification from the innermost recess of his self. His part- 
nership with fellowman, with the earth and with the cosmos, involving 


the participation of the entire species for its evolutionary destiny, can spring 
from the instinctive unconscious background of his personality. Modern 
man needs a new tool for dealing with his destiny, a new conscience em- 
bedded in his unconscious. 

Human evolution has introduced into man's instinctive life the super- 
ego or conscience as the expression of his sociability. But while conscience 
is the internalization of social and cultural norms and standards, it also 
expresses the wholeness of his personality poised in relation to the com- 
munity and the cosmos that are also wholes. The former is the authori- 
tarian and primitive aspect of conscience, the latter is its mature, creative 
or altruistic aspect. With the development of the human species the super- 
ego or stem and tyrannical conscience is increasingly replaced by the 
creative conscience, shorn of the primitive aggressiveness and tension of 
guilt, and assimilating strong positive and intrinsic values of goodness, 
love and wholeness. Between man's internal moral framework of con- 
science, which is partly inherited and primitive, and partly adapted, acquired 
and unique, and his external moral framework, as represented by the legacy 
of his culture his myths, values and ideals that is wholly acquired, there 
are constant action and reaction, inward and outward. 

Man in the course of his mental evolution assimilates, through the 
dynamic interchange between self, society and cosmos, notions of love, 
altruism and beauty and disavowals of hate, evil and ugliness into his per- 
sonality structure as mature, altruistic or humanistic conscience. Altruism 
is more deeply ingrained and more powerfully developed, and hence more 
symbolically and normatively elaborated in man than in any other animal. 
Trotter observes : "Man is altruistic, because he must be, not because reason 
recommends it. The individual of a gregarious species can never be truly 
independent and self-sufficient. Natural selection has ensured that as an 
individual he must have an abiding sense of incompleteness. This is the 
psychological germ which expresses itself in the religious feelings, in the 
desire for completion, for mystic union." 1 There are greater sensitiveness 
to the pain and suffering of fellow creatures, greater tenderness and love, 
altruism and compassion with human advance. What the Buddha, Christ, 
St. Francis, Chaitanya, Gandhi and Schweitzer felt through the centuries 
may come to constitute the conscience of the average man as social evolu- 
tion proceeds further. In the evolutionary piocess love, sympathy, com- 
passion and cooperativeness have gradually obtained the drive and impetus 
of the unconscious. These have become a part as much of man's organic 
as of his social heritage. 

Accordingly as social evolution progresses, the refinement of the moral 
framework, values and ideals of culture becomes internalized within the 
structure of the human personality as conscience. In man's mature conscience 

1 Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War, 


are implicated the whole of his genetic history and social and cultural 
evolution as well as his transcendent knowledge and experience of love, 
goodness and beauty. Instinct, which is the gift of animal evolution, and 
is associated with strong emotions springing from the depths of the un- 
conscious, and learning and faith which are acquisitions of mental and 
cultural evolution converge in the conscience of man. With an alert, 
sensitive, mature conscience he can make value judgments quickly and 
largely automatically, and use his intellect and judgment for comprehending 
a larger range of inter-personal factors for concrete actions in emerging 
social situations. The transformation of man from an instinct-driven 
animal to an evaluating, sensitive, responsible moral person is, to be sure, 
embodied in his conscience that gradually replaces natural selection as a 
mechanism of human evolution. Mature, creative conscience takes cogni- 
zance of all contingencies of life, internal and external, intuitively appre- 
hended and intellectually perceived, that are implicated in man's choice, 
and unerringly and unhesitatingly guides and regulates his decision and 
action. Man is unevenly equipped with conscience as with his impulses 
and intelligence. But the true and good man's conscience carries with it 
the wherewithal to transcend himself and the social situation. It is the 
only tool for evolved man to overcome his depravity, wickedness and reg- 
ression, and to direct himself towards beauty, goodness and perfection at 
the cost of much pain and suffering, even death. The evolved man's con- 
science is the true custodian of human worth, dignity and perfectibility. 

With his imagination and intuition man comprehends and appreciates 
the strange cosmos into which he is born, sees it with greater awe and 
wonder, and enriches it with new and valuable meanings, values and ex- 
periences. In so far as he finds himself spiritually at-home with the cosmos, 
his conscience responds to it, loves it, adores it and identifies itself with it. 
Conscience is the supreme guardian of perfection, wholeness and com- 
pleteness of man and universe. It is the final and impeccable voice of 
human universalism and cosmic universalism. It fuses the human universe 
into the infinitely larger meaningful, purposeful cosmic universe. Con- 
science impels and sustains the endless quest for truth, wholeness and 
holiness, the discovery of unknown patterns of beauty and significance in 
the cosmos, the mystical exploration of the unnamable, incomprehensible 
and sublime and the dedication for altruism and service to all sentience, 
and thereby make the cosmos more conscious of itself. The goal of cos- 
mic evolution itself is the emergence of conscience which, to be sure, takes 
charge and directs the course of the cosmic process of evolution that up 
till then had been uncertain, inconsistent and haphazard. Religion, my- 
thology and philosophy sometimes identify conscience with the unknown 
God, with the cosmic order and harmony, and with the soul of the All and 
Being, all of which reveal the full possibilities and implications of the 
goal of evolution a collective faith of the human species calling for its 


highest intelligence, love and transcendence and directing it to unknown 
vistas of fulfilment. 

It is clear enough that the vital source of all advance in human values 
and potentialities is conscience, which unceasingly impels man towards 
wholeness and transcendence, and unerringly and unequivocally prophe- 
sises his attitude and way of living. Such are the bio-psychological 
functions of conscience in the open or transcendent evolution of man. 
He must look before and after both as individual and as species. He has, 
therefore, evolved inner mechanisms and functions for forecasting himself 
and his conduct of life with clarity, sagacity and certitude. The world of 
physical events and processes is subject to prediction and control by the 
laws of nature. The world of human values, behaviour and experiences 
is similarly forestalled and governed by the laws of conscience. In such 
anticipation and control of his life and fulfilment man intuitively assumes 
a capacity to achieve beyond the human. 

Evolution's latest, noblest, yet most slipshod mechanism is human 
conscience. Having its dim, tentative beginnings in the directiveness of 
lower organisms, it is now woven into the very texture of human per- 
sonality from childhood. The entire animal heritage of man and the 
inheritance of his millennia-long history and civilization are epitomised in 
the voice of conscience having the tenacity and impulsion of the uncon- 
scious dimensions of his being. It, accordingly, speaks with both unerring 
certitude and profound intensity of emotion amidst the chronic distortions 
of values by culture, the clamant and often contradictory demands of group 
and society and the tragedies of personal life. Conscience, inspired by 
altruism and guided by knowledge, has now become the trustee and agent 
of cosmic evolution. Remaining largely unconscious and impersonal, 
it carries man to the roots of his being, to the very principles of life in 
general. It opens up unknown and untested modes of human being and 
becoming, and is analogous to the "pre-adaptation" of many lower animals 
that is specialization coming in advance of immediate biological needs. 
Such is the "pre-adaptation" or transformation of local, regional and 
national persons into Cosmic Persons, and of finite and limited societies, 
nations and blocs of nations into the ideal Cosmic Mind and Community 
that humanity now gropes after uncertainly, and yet so persistently. With- 
out these, human progress, and hence the progress of the cosmic process 
of evolution, will not only be checkmated but enter into blind alleys of 
defeat and regression. 

The present century in which man has become for the first time con- 
scious of his sole responsibility for continuing evolutionary advance should 
not permit any lapse or feebleness of conscience but rather enkindle it 
as the basis of rational choice and action. Unfaith and callous and feeble 
conscience are the outcome of his lop-sided intellectual advance that eschews 
other areas of normal interests and values. As Jaspers observes: "In 


unfaith the human condition becomes a biological fact among other biological 
facts; man surrenders to what his finite knowledge determined as neces- 
sities and inevitabilities, he gives in to a sense of futility, the energy of his 
mind declines. He stifles his supposed factuality. Philosophical faith, on 
the other hand, is the faith of man in his potentialities. In it breathes his 
freedom/' The discovery and adequate and effective use of human poten- 
tialities make the problem of conscience critical for the destiny of the 



Man, the Creature and Master of the Environment 

Man, who is the climax and end-product of the evolutionary process, 
has developed certain faculties and strivings that may and should enable 
him to become its agent and trustee. This choice and responsibility he has 
attained through the development of his mental powers and capacities, 
and the acquisition and transmission of social traditions and values that 
constitute the non-biological heritage of his acquired environment. As 
the super-dominant creature of the earth, with his developed brain and mind, 
language and tools, he has ranged so widely over the various continents, 
and has been so successful in his acclimatisation and control over physical 
conditions that he has been able to achieve and maintain a common global 
tradition. Even the highest social insects, viz., the ants, after about fifty 
million years of their tenure on the earth, have failed to create a global ant 

Man's physical and mental characteristics seem to be influenced by 
natural selection in different ways. The configuration of his body, the 
colour of his skin, the form of his nose, the blood-group and other physical 
traits possess, or at least possessed in the past, differential survival values 
in different environments in the course of his adaptation and migration 
in various climatic zones of the earth. These differentiate in large measure 
races and peoples. The direct and indirect effects of dietary, type of labour 
and occupation and pattern of living in particular environments stabilise 
physical and mental differences among the various stocks of humanity 
that are sharpened by inbreeding through the generations. 

At the same time the course of human social evolution invests man's 
genetical constitution, not with fixity of behavioural traits within the limited 
mould of biologically pre-determined responses in specific regions, but 
with cducability, mental plasticity and variability of adjustment as species 
traits. In man's selection and survival both genetical stability and plasti- 
city are essential; but even more essential are his psycho-social stability 
and plasticity. As the mechanisms of evolution have in the main be- 
come social and conscious rather than blind and automatic, evolutionary 
progress depends on the reconciliation of tradition with novelty, of stability 
with change, of security with expenditure of energy and resources and of 
localism with universalism. Thus alone can man come into increasing 
harmony with his external social heritage and ensure his biological future. 


Human Genetical System and World-wide 'Environment 

Life at the psycho-social level favours plastic genotypes that show 
mental capacities to re-adjust, improvise and invent responses in terms not 
only of a particular region and culture or form of social organisation, but 
also in those of the global tradition, which only the human species creates, 
maintains and transmits. It is man's greater capacity for learning and 
mental flexibility which have not only given him dominance in the animal 
kingdom, but have also built up his unique global social environment to 
which he is increasingly exposed. Of all living species man can occupy 
and exploit all parts of the globe. Not only through industry, commerce 
and migration but also through the dissemination and intercharge of science, 
knowledge and culture he develops a global tradition which largely deter- 
mines the conditions of his fuller and more wholesome life and of his further 
advance. Kenneth Mather observes : "With other species the environment 
depends little if at all on the individual's heredity. This is no longer true 
with men, who not only make their own environments for themselves, so 
that they can live in hot, cold, wet and dry parts of the world at will and 
now even proposes to devise ways of living in space, but who also make 
environments for one another.'' Man represents today a flexible genotype 
with the capacity to adapt itself to any part of the globe; while his environ- 
ment is modified and transformed in a measure so as to suit the species 
as a whole. The global environment, physical and social, comprises the 
milieu for his selection and survival in the future. 

Man's tools, traditions, symbols and culture in any particular region 
or culture belong to the species as a whole. These promote the dual 
features of the evolution of man both as individual and as species in dif- 
ferent parts of the globe, viz., the mental development of the human indi- 
vidual resulting in the full realisation of his values and potentialities every- 
where, and the enrichment of his external social inheritance, both on a 
shared basis within the overall unity of world knowledge and culture. 
Biological evolution in man is brought about by the improvement of his 
genetical system so that he can accommodate himself to different environ- 
mental conditions and possibilities, and also develop his unique creative 
traits, capacities and values on one side, and his control of the environment 
directed towards making adaptation of the organism to its specific aspects 
less necessary on the other. Both these make him increasingly independent 
of the external environment or increasingly capable of maintaining internal 
conditions in spite of external stresses and strains (homeostasis) and accele- 
rate the rate of his evolutionary change. The genetical system of human 
population is characterised by greater individual versatility, while its en- 
vironmental control is more thorough-going than we meet with any other 

Mankind in the future will be a mongrel breed, even showing greater 


disparity ot the traits of the individual, physical and mental. There has 
been far more racial interbreeding in the century than even in the past. 
The modern trend is towards the gradual obliteration of regional dif- 
ferences of the so-called races. North and South America are today the 
melting-pots of genes, and new brands are appearing and stabilising them- 
selves due to the mixing of the indigenous populations, Negroes from 
Africa and diverse stocks and strains from Western Europe. In Japan 
there has been recently a mixing of European and Asian strains due to 
the army of occupation. For centuries in Asia south of the Himalayas 
and their extension eastward the Ta-shuch Shan ranges racial blending has 
been silently going on and the new mixtures show intelligence, vigour and 
comeliness. In a more unified world of the future the differences between 
the ethnic types, produced by geographical isolation, will fadeaway and the 
human species will be tied closer as peoples will show less differences of 
physical features and none can pride themselves in pure and undefiled 
ancestry.* Yet the mixing of genes will foster variety rather than unifor- 
mity. The differences between man and man will grow rather than dimi- 
nish. While the mental variety and plasticity based on physiological blend- 
ing will contribute to man's advance through a uniqueness of his individual 
qualities and capacities, the control and improvement of his environment 
will be more and more effective through the communication of the results 
of science and technology on a globals cale. 

Man's further biological advance, rooted in the improvement of both 
his genetic and acquired mental powers and potentialities, largely depends 
on individual cultures favouring and selecting genotypes with greater and 
greater educability, plasticity and catholicity of mind and behaviour and on 
the development of the common social heritage and conscious cooperation 
of mankind-as-a whole. The progress of genetics, experimental embryo- 
logy and eugenics suggests that man in the future can modify the biological 
potential of his succeeding generations in favour of greater open-minded- 
ness, catholicity and interchange of social behaviour and values through 
influencing the genes. If selective breeding and training had perpetuated 
caste and class systems among different peoples and civilizations in the 
past, why cannot mankind hope that biological disciplines may be harnessed 
in the future into the making of open men and open societies as it takes 
charge of evolution in its own hands ? Only by choosing the open aims 
and activities of the One-World-Individual and One-World-Community 
can man transcend the limitations of natural selection that has so far governed 
his purely biological evolution, and determine the direction of his evolu- 
tionary advance, biologically and culturally. 
The Global Range of Human Evolution 

The human species is now at the cross-roads in its life-history. There 

1 See Boyd : Genetics and the Rates of Man. 


is today an intermingling of the old biological and the new psycho-social 
evolution in human relations and behaviour. Never has mankind wielded 
such formidable tools of science and knowledge and of hands that can 
lead to its self-annihilation in intra-species competition and conflict. Nor 
has it at the same time acquired such tools of reciprocal understanding, 
appreciation and consecration of the various peoples that can mould the 
whole-man of peace, love and compassion and mankind-as-a whole into 
the brotherhood of the species in very real senses. Mankind's hope and 
promise of ultimate replacement of the mechanisms of rivalry and struggle 
of the old biological evolution rest on these. Human civilization, global 
in its range, aims at the conscious and systematic control and direction 
of the old biological evolution embodying the ethics of man's survival 
and the full realisation of his potentialities. Its means are two-fold : the 
integration and growth of the personality into the Whole or Complete 
Man as personal responsibility in every culture and the development of 
mankind-awareness, feeling and cooperation of different States and peoples 
as collective responsibility. The two are interwoven and comprise the 
new dual mechanisms of psycho-social evolution superimposed upon and 
over-riding the old biological mechanisms of constant, relentless struggle 
for dominance, power and mere survival. 

In human life for the first time in organic evolution, the law of struggle 
and survival is overlaid and dominated by the ethics of cooperativeness, 
harmony and balance for the individual, for the species and for the whole 
of life. In fact the bio-ecological laws of correlation, interchange and 
symbiosis of the diverse forms of life to one another and to their collective 
environment give a truer picture of the general evolutionary process than 
the law of ruthless struggle, natural selection and survival. Plant and 
animal ecology demonstrates the unity and solidarity of life in an ecological 
area maintained by an intricate web of linkages that interlock the lives of 
a single plant and animal, or species of plant and animal, and subordinate 
these to the welfare of the species or the "biocoenosis" as whole. It is 
in this subtle "web of life" that the great biological gains of the past are 
in some measure recorded and systematised. In the perspective of evolu- 
tion the "web of life" becomes more ramified, more intricate and more 
coherent and comes to direct the progress of the ecological system as a 
whole with its spontaneous harmony, orderliness and hierarchy of commu- 
nities. Cannot the human species obtain the biological lessons of its stabi- 
lity and progress in its global environment from the symbiosis, cooperation 
and the balanced, self-regulating organisation of the life-communities of 
nature ? Biological progress reveals the increasing diversity as well as 
solidarity of species of life, intricately, coherently and harmoniously adapted 
to one another so that the total environment becomes more suitable for 
all species of life. 


General Ecology that comprises plant, animal and human ecology 
today stresses the reciprocal relationships and balances of living com- 
munities in the habitat representing an antithesis of the inevitable out- 
come of a cosmic process of natural selection. The broad ecological trend 
of mutual interconnectedness and harmony of innumerable kinds of living 
species, knit together in a harmonious self-regulating organisation, has 
obtained a unique significance in human evolution. Thus a re-interpreta- 
tion of the plan of nature formulated by Darwinism is overdue. 

Stability and Versatility in Human Social Evolution 

Man in the course of psycho-social evolution has reached a stage in 
which adaptation, stability and versatility as well as control of the environ- 
ment have changed their forms or patterns for his maximum biological 
fitness. Adaptation is now lifted to the dimension of adjustment to the 
acquired external social environment, which has become the more or less 
durable medium of organic adaptation and selection of individual traits, 
capacities and achievements. Unlike any other animal, man in some 
measure modifies through breeding his genetic equipment, and in large 
measure his non-biological, acquired environment for the purpose of his 
adaptation. Such contro 1 becomes easier where his acquired social environ- 
ment is not too rigid and restricted by custom and tradition, but is flexible 
enough for embodying and expressing the idiosyncratic needs and values 
of individuals. 

The old conflict between stability and versatility is renewed at the 
new psycho-social stage of evolution in a new form. Human advance 
rests on the balance between old and new goals, values and traditions so 
that the change may not be conflictful. The genetical and environmental 
improvement can lead to human advance only if aimed at the right goals 
and values of life, i.e., the maximum enrichment, creativeness and integra- 
tion of the human individual, on one side; and the maximum enlargement 
of his external heritage of acquired social environment on the other. For 
man's biological progress the increase of individual versatility which marks 
him out among the animals, must be directed to the qualitative improve- 
ment of his unique attributes, goals and capacities that have been evolved 
by social, not biological, mechanisms, and that fit him in ever-more perfect 
harmony with fellow-man and cosmos. Stability in the new context is 
also largely the outcome of the external social heritage. Man has acquired 
a degree of stability that no other species can equal due to the facilities 
of symbolic communication of the accumulated traditions and culture 
through the generations. Stability can be biologically progressive only 
when it means the perpetuation of the prized human goals, values and 
achievements for the future generations, while at the same time is com- 
patible with the continuous production of new ideas, goals and values from 
gifted, even aberrant individuals. 


Qualitative Changes in Evolution and Environmental Control 

At the psycho-social level both the organism and the environment, 
both human nature and society, progressively evolve in relation to each 
other not only along a direction indicating quantitative changes of attri- 
butes, but into ever new qualities, values and experiences. The emergences 
of life, man and mind were themselves successive qualitative changes in 
the course of evolution which must continue, if life is to continue. Human 
nature must, accordingly, catch up with the qualitative changes caused by 
the dynamic reciprocal adjustments of man, behaviour and environment 
in the on-going process of life. 

This is not an extrapolation of human ideas, wishes and values into 
evolution, but a trend of the more general progress of Jife itself. Such 
trend involves progress in adaptation and in control by each individual 
species of the environment towards its improvement for its long-term 
goals on one side; and the increase of both the diversity of species and 
the orderliness, harmony and solidarity of the organisation of life as a whole 
on the other. In the new context of human social evolution, environmental 
control includes, first, the conservation and improvement of natural resources 
and possibilities for the ends and values of the population in the long 
periods of time. Control of the environment includes, secondly, peace 
and amity between man and fellow-man, and between tgroup and group 
within each culture, and the organisation of mankind-as-a whole. Thus 
man evolves by achieving an increasing harmony ;with both his living 
environment his fellowmen extending into the earth-community and his 
non-living environment including the cosmos as he can comprehend and 
appreciate it. 

For the biological progress of man his environmental control oversteps 
his objective mastery of the external environment that provides the material 
basis of his advance. It achieves the deflection of his energy and resources 
from the goals of mere survival and reproduction to the creation, fulfilment 
and dissemination of higher intrinsic values and satisfactions with the 
increasing realisation of human potentialities. This alters the entire dimen- 
sion on which evolution occurs. With the supremacy of mind in evolution, 
the really significant increase of control and autonomy of man, rooted in 
the advance of knowledge and depth and intensity of feeling, will be seen 
to be associated with his intrinsic, transcendent values and experiences 
his control and direction of abstract concepts to yield the truths of the 
cosmos, of sounds, forms and colours to give him experiences of beauty, 
rhythm and symmetry in the cosmos, and his transcendence of both his 
external conditions and mental states to give mystical exaltation and ecstasy 
i.e. identification with the cosmos. At the stage of human social evolution 
where mind and values predominate, the qualitative improvement of levels 
or dimensions of adaptation and control and improvement of environment 
are involved in the biological necessities. Human fitness is not for mere 


survival and reproduction, but for the fulfilment of an increasingly higher 
range of goals, values and satisfactions. Yet we can still speak of these 
as the natural consequences of evolutionary principles. 
"Biological versus Higher Needs and Values in Human Evolution 

Man evolves not only by the natural selection of his organic traits and 
dispositions, but also by the conscious selection and transmission of his 
traditions, goals and values that comprise the acquired medium in which 
the new pattern of evolution is operative. His fundamental drives of sexual 
impulse, tenderness and cooperativeness lead him to enlarging ambits of 
love, altruism and sacrifice. His aggressiveness seeks fulfilment in struggle 
with, and mastery over, environmental coercions and dangers common to 
fellow-men. His acquisitive competition leads to improvement in efficiency 
in the production and distribution of wealth and services and to increase 
in expenditure of energy and resources for the satisfaction of the higher 
intrinsic needs and values transcending the needs and values of biological 
survival. Thus the elementary propensities of sex, aggressiveness and 
acquisitiveness that maintain severe and unrestricted struggle and competi- 
tion at the animal level are now moulded and deflected through displace- 
ment, repression, transfer or sublimation by new human goals, values and 
fulfilments. The evolution of a complex human psyche, revolving round 
the family organisation, results in fostering affection, passivity and coopera- 
tiveness and checking animal rage, pugnacity and aggressiveness. Without 
the intimate and intelligent mental interchange within the family, between 
male and female, parents and offspring, man would not have been human. 
The key to man's humanity is provided by the milieu of the family welded 
by human monogamous mating, and care and solicitude for the young. 
It is the family which develops not only wits, speech and tools but also 
tender emotions and sentiments, fashions a human nature and communi cates 
a human tradition. 

Psycho-social selection gives a premium to the tender and altruistic 
interpersonal components that spread through the processes of learning 
and social communication and transmission from the family to the com- 
munity, nation and mankind-as-a whole. It promotes the redirection of 
fundamental drives along socially constructive channels that lead to the 
cumulative enrichment and variegation of individual productive traits, 
capacities and values. It, accordingly, limits the law of natural selection and 
survival in all possible directions, and constantly and synergestically en- 
larges its operations through the moulding influences on the individual 
and through the accumulation and transmission of acquired traditions, 
goals and values across successive generations. 

Modification of Human Nature and the Code of the Jungle 

Man's improved mastery over his environment through his science 
and technology that frees his time, energy and skill more and more from 



procuring means of subsistence, struggle and survival, his eradication of 
suffering and pain and control of diseases, accidents and perils of life, his 
improvement of the conditions of comfort, leisure and happiness for himself 
and for his progeny, and his rational, long-range, peaceful methods of 
resolution of conflicts of individuals, groups and nations are all evolutionary 
transformations not less significant than the changes in his biologic sexual, 
aggressive and acquisitive dispositions and behaviour. The former social- 
evolutionary transformations are registered in his external social heritage 
that makes it increasingly possible for him to qualitatively improve both 
his own nature, understandings, needs, values and experiences and his ever- 
widening psycho-social environment in which he lives and thrives. It is 
the extra-organic psycho-social heredity, the cumulative expansion, inheri- 
tance and transmission of knowledge, learning and morality, peculiar to 
the human species, which, to be sure, comprise its means of control and 
purposive direction of biological evolution, with its processes of struggle, 
coercion and mere survival, and of actualisation of human potentialities for 
the insights, values and experiences that make the human animal man 
in spite of his biological ancestry. The psycho-social inheritance of man 
in his generations ever achieving greater convergence, wider extension 
and better equilibration and ever replacing competition, conflict and 
violence in the raw completely transforms the pattern of biological 

The new psycho-social evolution gains in momentum and power as 
it increasingly enlarges its ambit, and brings within it more and more peoples, 
cultures and economic and social systems, as it becomes global in its scope. 
Then can it more consciously and effectively modify and reduce the scope 
of the old biological evolution rooted in force and cunning, and the law 
of tooth-and-claw and its derivative, the law of the eye for an eye and the 
tooth for a tooth in early and less mature human civilization. The mitiga- 
tion, limitation or abolition of the code of the jungle proceed with the 
extension of civilized mankind's legacy of culture, learning and morals 
worked out in the social structures and values of different peoples not 
through intra-species struggle but through intra-species thinking and con- 
secration. Today the new psycho-social evolution dominates the old 
animal evolution only, however, in the minds and hearts of the world's 
elite, and not of the mass of the world population. But science, technology, 
art, religion and morals, all have in the course of man's social development 
first sprung from small minorities, and then are gradually diffused and 
transmitted to embrace the world's population. The decision of the intel- 
lectual minorities of the world to unite and their definition of the right 
direction of social evolution for humanity at large, still under the influence 
of competition and natural selection only, are fateful for the future evolution 
of the species. 


Global Intra-species Co-operation 

Civilized man now does broadly utilize and manipulate the common 
cultural legacy of the species as a whole, and is more and more learning 
how to do so for the purposes of circumscribing, controlling and directing 
the processes of biological competition, struggle and selection. This is 
nothing more and nothing less than the extrapolation of the social mean- 
ing and moral purpose into the old biological evolution, making it less of 
the unmeaning, planless, materialistic process of which he has been the 
product. Psycho-social evolution is essentially directive, purposive and 
ethical, and advances on the basis of the qualitative improvement of the 
human person and the growth and diffusion of mankind's common pool 
of knowledge, morals and culture from which are derived the judgments 
about persons, values and institutions in particular cultures. 

Man's intellectual, social and moral attributes, capacities and strivings 
and his common global traditions have no doubt arisen by biological evo- 
lution, but these are no longer defined by it. These have lifted his evo- 
lution to another dimension altogether the dimension of conscious moral 
choice and cultural direction on a global scale. His fundamental evolu- 
tionary advance, which is tirans-biological and global, rests on the increasing 
replacement of natural selection by conscious selection of ideas, values and 
institutions, and this over the entire planet. The factors of the 
growth of new ideas and values, their easy preservation, communication 
and transmission and the natural selective pressure for and against these 
in different cultures are, therefore, of the greatest significance for human 
evolution. In human culture the random mutations of new ideas and 
values, and their linkages and recombinations in the pool of social heredity 
are far more frequent and propagated far more quickly, leading to spurts 
of social evolutionary advance. At the same time the social genetic system, 
like the biological one, is resistant to the assimilation of an acquired charac- 
ter that arises out of environmental stresses. The evolution of mind and 
values and of social heredity and the control and direction of the environ- 
ment greatly circumscribe the scope of natural selection in human progress 
in spite of the fact that the mechanisms of the old biological evolution viz., 
intra-species struggle and sanguinary warfare have not been superseded 
by the new mechanisms of human social evolution viz., intra-species con- 
ceptual understanding, value judgment and conscious cooperation. Yet 
the parallelisms between the human and animal evolutionary system are 
quite close. 1 Although the planned control and direction of social evolu- 
tion remain indirect and inchoate there is no doubt these involve mankind's 
biological and moral imperative of the control and ultimate abolition of 
war that has been the major obstacle to its progress in a long and chequered 
history and now threatens its very survival. 

1 Waddington : Evolutionary System Animal and Human, N/rtf, 1959; 
Darlington ; The Control of Evolution in Man, Naturt t 1958. 


War, a Crime and a Perversion 

War is at once a biological crime and a psycho-social perversion. It 
retards man's advance as much through large-scale killings of the best 
and the noblest stratum in the population as through rending asunder the 
close-knit fabric of intellectual and moral traditions and values that truly 
constitute the common human heritage and acts as a sieve of conscious 
human selection and advance. It deflects the hard-won acquisitions of his 
skill, knowledge and technology into the channels of mutual rivalry and 
destruction, rehabilitating the crude and old mechanisms of natural selection 
by brute force that he has largely outgrown in his evolution. It blocks 
the trend of potentialities of the human person, society and culture. The 
give-and-take between a war-like, belligerent society and the socially con- 
ditioned pugnacious individual distorts normal mental growth and social 
integration, and impoverishes the system of values and culture. Unless 
the clumsy and indiscriminate mechanism of sifting that warfare represents 
is completely superseded by the pacific, wholesome and rational sifting 
towards the good, just and humane person and social relations, mankind 
cannot move forward towards optimum richness and depth of living and 
experience. That is human evolution, in the proper track. War, to be 
sure, is a flagrant and wholesale denial of values and style of living that 
go to the making and maturation of normal personality, society and values. 
Yet mankind so far has entered with deliberation and in terms of long- 
range efficiency into an excited and irrational adventure that most animals 
shun, and that it alone knows, leads to its all-round retrogression. 

Disharmony Between Old and New Mechanisms of Human Evolution 

The struggle for existence in human history, i.e. the human sector 
of evolution, has manifested itself in a contrasted manner, in both ruthless 
internecine war and genocide, and silent rivalry and struggle between ideas, 
values, mentifacts, artifacts and social institutions since the dawn of Homo 
sapiens. Man's ancestral stock branched off from the rest of the anthro- 
poids ten to twenty million years ago, and Homo sapiens emerged on this 
planet about five hundred to one hundred thousand years ago. The period 
from the beginning of human history to the present epoch is about six 
thousand years or three hundred generations which may be too short to 
permit a perceptible evolution of his brain and mind. His improved 
knowledge, memory, imagination and judgment of the consequences of his 
actions have eschewed neither aggressiveness and brutality nor irrational, 
ego-centric enjoyment. Nor have his enlarged capacity for formal educa- 
tion and rich and complex social and intellectual heritage assured adequate 
control over his instinctual rage, greed, hate and other dispositions and 
impulses harking back to his animal origins. A good many of his inherited 
impulses and extravagant and unwholesome pleasures stand in the way 
of development of the higher needs, values and gratifications, while depen- 


dence on mere physical strength and endurance is incompatible with his 
newly evolved and elaborated mechanisms of control, improvement and 
transformation of the environment. The external social heritage, which 
arises out of the interchange of unconscious, organic and conscious social 
factors, without any determinate relation to his extremely complex and 
viable needs, values and strivings, and which constitutes the fundamental 
basis of his new evolution, has also proved inflexible and circumscribed, 
and as a guide to his evolutionary advance, unreliable. It can neither 
spread instantaneously, nor combat his elemental drives successfully nor, 
again, translate his reason, intelligence and imagination into social action 
effectively at any given moment. Because of the very circumstance that 
it is in part created, moulded and transmitted by human reason and voli- 
tion, and in part by instincts, habits and emotions, it may be considerably 
distorted and channelized in the directions of the use of force and cunning, 
domination and natural selection all typical elements in the old biological 
evolution. A lop-sided, sinister and sanguinary social tradition and orga- 
nisation, indeed, can and does strongly warp man's needs, sentiments, 
judgments and values and checkmate his psycho-social evolution. 

Human Evolution, Still an Open Question 

Man cannot as yet make sure that his psycho-social evolution is bound 
to occur without deviations, set-backs and back-slidings, even though he 
has discerned the biological penalty of these latter. Biologically speaking, 
his evolution still remains an open question. Psychologically speaking, he 
alone among the animals can make the fateful choice of influencing his own 
further evolution or extinction. This psychological decision is certainly 
urgent in the Atomic Age but not at all easy, due to the peculiarities of 
development of his brain and nervous organisation, resulting in a domi- 
nance of his instinctual drives, feelings and emotions over his intelligence 
and directiveness. His mental development shows a serious lop-sidedness 
towards inadequate inhibition of his aggressive and destructive impulses 
and irrational satisfactions that now after six thousand years of his culture 
threatens his doom. Weidenrekh finds that the human brain-case attained 
its greatest evolutionary expansion during the Neanderthal phase and has 
undergone a distinct diminution since. The brain of Neanderthal man is 
not more globular than that of modern, but distinctly less so. 1 The slight 
reduction of brain size and increase in globularity of the brain of emergent 
man have aggravated the disbalance between the intensity of impulses and 
emotions embodied in the resurgent aggressiveness and oral capacity of 
the tool and weapon-making, predatory man and their rational inhibition 
and restraint. Aggressiveness with the concomitant emotions of anger 
and rage had, no doubt, its survival value for the hominid whose dietetic 
predilection and adoption of hunting life exposed him to excessive risk 

1 Apts, Giant t and Men, 


and conflict. The momentous behavioural shift from the defensive and 
retreating pattern of the arboreal ape to the hunting, attacking pattern of 
the terrestrial human carnivore favours a level of aggressiveness and des- 
tructiveness as adaptive and essential for his survival. Human sexuality 
involves also elements of aggression as evident in sadism and masochism, 
and there is no doubt that humans show a stronger and more constant 
sexual propensity than apes and monkeys. According to Deutsch aggres- 
sive drives are especially intensified in humans during menstruation. There 
is, indeed, somec linical evidence to the effect that aggressiveness in man, 
whether connected with his sexual dispositions or not, exists as a part of 
his genetic equipment. His hereditary endowment of aggressive and 
destructive impulses has now obviously become a psycho-biological handi- 
cap for his advance. Inadequately repressed and inhibited, these impulses 
get the better of his reason, judgment and dircctiveness. Neither his 
improving intelligence nor the feelings and sentiments of love, tenderness 
and altruism, stimulated in his enlarged communities, can adequately check 
his aggressive propensity and response. The least provocation due to 
hunger, frustration, deprivation of love, pain or punishment provokes 
in man strong and dangerous aggressive reactions. In his mental evolution 
the excessive development of reason and intelligence accompanies a rela- 
tively insufficient restraint of aggressiveness, destructiveness and sexual 
impulse that now constitute a serious biological handicap for his further 

The Imbalance between Human Intelligence and Instincts 

There has been, no doubt, a marked increase of intelligence, skill and 
knowledge from the Neanderthal hunter and the Aurignacian cave-dweller 
to Plato, Leonardo da Vinci, Sankara and Einstein. But there has been 
no corresponding gain in love, sensitiveness and compassion since the 
Buddha, Confucius, Socrates and Jesus. Man's emotional and moral 
immaturity is attached to his colossal and distorted intelligence and techno- 
logical skill. An exaggeration of the intellectual faculty with inadequate 
control of impulses and emotions, and deficient intuitive appreciation of 
the higher goals and values of life, accounts for ever-increasing pugnacity, 
greed and lust for power in human development. This warps and distorts 
the channelling and expression even of his normal desires. At the same 
time, due to the relative under-development of his social sentiment and of 
aesthetic and spiritual intuition, with associated inward detachment, exalta- 
tion and ecstasy, large vistas of experience and fields of endeavour that can- 
not be thrown open merely by sharp intelligence and reason are excluded. 

Man has to wage a dual struggle for his survival : first, against his 
hereditary sexuality, rage and aggressiveness that have become bio-psycho- 
logical misfits; and, second, against the excesses, aberrations and deviations 
of high intelligence that has overshot its mark and hampers social integration 


through excessive avarice, ambition and desire for fame, status and 
domination. Both personal deterioration and social disorganisation, in- 
deed, follow from the inadequacies of love and the "vices" of intelligence. 
The corrective is, of course, the growth and nurture of expansive, self- 
transcending, other-regarding emotions and aesthetic and mystical intuitions. 
These can effectively restrain egoism, aggressiveness, callousness and lust 
for domination, and positively enlarge and deepen human sympathies and 
the expressions of human creativity and productiveness. Man can truly 
surpass himself not with the excessive intelligence of a Pythagoras, a Bacon 
and a Descartes but with the intuition of a Buddha, a Confucius and a 
Jesus. The fate of Homo sapiens largely depends on the supremacy of the 
altruistic, aesthetic and spiritual values and experiences over the norms 
and standards of cold, arid intellectualism. 

Causes and Consequences of Hyper-Cortical Activity 

Max Scheler long ago pointed out that one of the most significant 
ways in which the hypertrophy of intellect is proving a hindrance to man's 
total advance is his loss of capacity for "specialised identification with 
fellow-beings, characteristic of most animals." 1 Like children, mystics 
and poets and also several types of neurotics show a greater capacity for 
sensory "eidetic imagery" than normal persons. This is associated with 
their greater rapport that extends beyond perception, and enhances the 
meaning and value of fellow-beings in much larger measure than we asso- 
ciate with normal human feeling and experience. He mentions the pioneer 
work of Jaensch to the effect that sensory "eidetic imagery" which the 
average adult has lost and which is still present in children, is a mid-way 
stage between perception and ideation, out of which the distinction between 
them seems first to be developed. According to Allport, the true function 
of the eidetic image is discernible only in childhood when by preserving 
and elaborating sensory data it enhances the meaning of the stimulus situa- 
tion for the child and enables him to perfect his adaptive responses. 2 The 
loss or reduction of capacity for sensory "eidetic imagery" is linked with 
the diminution of love, sympathy and sensitiveness towards fellowman, 
and this is noticeable even from childhood. The entire meaning of the 
man-with-man situation and the corresponding behaviour accordingly 

For an adequate explanation of the above we have to go to neurologists. 
There is a remarkable disparity between the excessive growth and elabora- 
tion of man's cerebral cortex and the relatively inadequate development of 
that part of the brain and the nervous system concerned with his emotional 
drives. The latter are mainly glandular, and are not under complete control 
of conscious direction. Man's roof-brain which stands for knowledge 

1 The Nature of Sympathy, p. 31. 

* Eidetic Imagery, British Journal of Psychology, XV. 


and reason, and which is uniquely human and relatively new in animal 
evolution, can govern, as Sherrington shows, his old brain of "affect." 
But the former has developed to be a hundred times the greater of the 
latter. To the latter region pertain the bodily phenomena of affect. Also 
from it, according to Sherrington, issue nerve-paths up to the great roof- 
brain which correlate with mind. 1 The hypothalamus, lying near the centre 
of the head, is also an area connected with the emotional life with nerve 
fibres conducting impulses in both directions. According to Young, it 
establishes the general attitude or direction of much of brain action the 
emotional tone* But "such condition as aggressiveness or irritability though 
both influence and can be controlled by intellectual life are partly indepen- 
dent of it."* Machean holds that while the neocortex which has shown 
a great proliferative expansion in man and is the mediator of his specialized 
discriminating and abstracting intellectual activity, his emotional behaviour 
continues to be under the dominance of a system which lacks abilities for 
specific discrimination, for verbal or symbolic capacity or for self-awareness. 
He calls this "visceral brain" that is derived mainly from the old rhinen- 
cephalon dominant in more primitive animal forms. 8 Apparently the 
"visceral brain" is deficient in the capacities of inhibition and control of 
man's life of impulses and emotions through discrimination, abstraction 
and symbolisation. Freedman and Roe have suggested that man's pro- 
longed development and delayed maturity are responsible for the persistence 
of an archaic neurological and endocrinological system partially but not 
completely under cortical control. They observe : "Retardation inexo- 
rably creates a social man, dependent on his social skills and dependent too 
on a complicated system of symbolic communication based on his superior 
brain, for survival. Built into this subtle, symbolic, social organism is the 
affective mechanism of the archipallium, and the endocrine and autonomic 
systems geared to more primitive stimulus patterns and to kinesthelic and 
visceral responses."* It is suggested by Whyte that due to the disconti- 
nuity between cortical and glandular processes man acts impulsively and 
emotionally, apart from the exercise of his reason and judgment. He 
reflects, speaks and behaves apart from his elemental instincts and disposi- 
tions. 8 The dominant emotions, sex, rage and fear, may function rebel- 
liously, not integrally in terms of the complete situation. Bertalanffy also 
considers that human progress is a purely intellectual affair made possible 
by the enormous development of the fore-brain, with no commensurate 
development on the instinctual side. 6 There are, no doubt, discontinuity 

1 Sherrington : Man on His Nature, pp. 232-233. 
1 J.Z. Young : Doubt and Certainty in Science ; p. 54. 

* Paul Machean : Psychosomatic Disease and the Visceral Brain, Psychosomatic Medi- 
cim t II, 3*8-35.*. 

4 Evolution and Human Behaviour, pp. 460-461, in 'Behaviour and Evolution. (Ed. : 
Roe and Simpson^. 

* Accent on form, pp. 132-133. 

* A Biologist Looks at Human Nature, The Scmtific Monthly, Vol. 82, 


and imbalance between man's hyper-cortical activity and instinctive be- 
haviour which have a neurological basis. Many of man's hereditary ins- 
tincts and dispositions such as those of the proverbial ape and tiger and, 
we may add, of the donkey, and his lower instinctive satisfactions obviously 
stand in the way of his higher emotions, aspirations and values and fuller 
social integration and living, and hence of his total evolution. 

The Qualitative Improvement of the Human Mind 

Man's excessive hereditary endowments of egoism, aggressiveness, 
anger and greed, the discontinuity between his reflective, and instinctive 
behaviour in his mental development, and his automatic physical strength 
and prowess are acquisitions of an organic order during the millions of 
years when he had to hunt or breed other animals in order to kill them 
for food instead of growing food, and hardly developed extra-corporal 
sources of power to supplement or supersede his muscles. Civilized man 
today shows in all regions a progressive refinement of the physiognomy, 
with diminution of the protrusion and size of the cheek bones, lessening of 
the size and massiveness of the jaws and teeth, and more generalised beauty. 1 
There is a trend towards the globular head, large and high forehead, high 
brows, narrow noses and prominent chins bringing about a marked refine- 
ment of the face and towards tallness and slenderness of the body with 
longer legs and shorter arms. Many of these changes, which have already 
become more or less hereditary, are linked with the new mechanisms of 
human environmental control and improvement. 

"Biological and Psychological Forecasts of Man 

J. B, S. Haldane's biological forecast of man is this : "In the last mil- 
lion years man has become more cerebral, more neotenic and more poly- 
morphic. We should expect our remote descendents to have an appearance 
that we should describe today as childish. We should expect their physio- 
logical, intellectual and emotional development to be slower than our own 
(neoteny). We should not expect them to be born with an overpowering 
urge to any particular kind of conduct, good or bad (polymorphism). 
It is probable that these are desirable evolutionary trends while judgment 
should be reserved concerning polytypicism and sexual dimorphism." 8 
To this we may add a psychological forecast. Man in the future will grow 
much more tardily, both physically and mentally. A larger and more 
complex brain, more intelligence, insight and appreciation, a more extended 
childhood and youth and greater longevity will all be linked with one 
another. The increased span of life will lead to an extension of the period 
of education necessary due to the increase and complexity of information 

1 See Ales Hrdlicka : The Problem of Human Evolution in Anshen (Ed.) : Science 
and Man, p. 36; also Mckinley : Evolution : The Ages and Tommorrow, p. 240. 

1 Haldanc : Human Evolution : Past and Future, in Whit Barnett (Ed.) : This is 
My Philosophy. 


which man must acquire to live efficiently and adequately in modern civili- 
zation. This will lead to both a qualitative improvement and quantitative 
variegation of human talents and capacities. Man will continue to learn 
till maturity and live for many more decades, having much richer interests, 
values and achievements to his credit. His muscular power will greatly 
diminish as his more prodigious extra-corporeal power, derived from nature 
and improved scientific and technological skill and resources, will give 
him far greater capacity to control, improve and transform the environment. 
He will show a much wider range of cognitions, feelings and tastes and 
variety of values and behaviour patterns than modern man. Since he will 
probably belong to a mixed racial blend he will be freer from current race and 
colour prejudices and will exhibit a higher mental plasticity and variability, 
constituting the foundation of richer human values and potentialities. 

Less and less will the man of the future cling to his animal past and 
more and more will his life, values and achievements be focussed at higher 
than the animal dimension turning away from food, sex, shelter, fight and 
manual toil. His life will be more full of novelty, adventure and enter- 
prise in unknown and unexplored realms space travel to which his body 
and mind are not yet adapted will be an instance that will resolve many 
inner tensions and conflicts due to frustration. In conformity with the 
trend of mental evolution, he will reveal a marked combination of sensi- 
tivity and emotional detachment with higher imagination and intuition and 
capacity for sustained abstract reasoning and contemplation. He will be far 
less impelled by the instinctual drives and emotions, by sex, rage, greed, fear 
and anxiety, and by crowd and mass psychology. Not merely an increase in 
the length of education but an improvement of its quality and dimension, 
with the aid of psychology and psychiatry, will eliminate his anxiety and 
conflict, frustration and aggression, and make him much happier, more 
efficient, more compassionate and more wholesome. Productiveness, 
adventurousness and joy, linked with greater empathy of the individual, 
will add a new warmth and intimacy to collective life. The differences 
between one individual and another will be magnified. But the improve- 
ment of human novelty and diversity, and of the heights the unusual giants 
of the future will reach, will be accompanied by a greater sense of justice, 
goodness and love. The latter will be far different from the pattern of 
standardized sociability into which the children of the present generation 
are forced. It is the enrichment and refinement of the intrinsic values which 
will determine the average human quality and hence the future of man- 

Endless Reciprocity between Changing Human Nature and 'Environment 

Man in the future will, no doubt, be much more rational and intel- 
ligent in his judgment about himself, society and cosmos. His know- 
ledge and comprehension of cosmos will far exceed the bounds of scientific 


and philosophical imagination of the present. But it is not only, and even 
largely in the clarity, depth and sweep of his knowledge or in the speed 
of its acquisition and transmission that he will surpass present day man. 
For he will create beauty, love and goodness much beyond what we can 
imagine at present. He will manifest greater aesthetic appreciation, social 
empathy and mystical exaltation and will be dependent for his intuitions, 
motivations and values on a more adequate man-and-cosmos orientation. 
In mind and mind, and mind and cosmos transactions new horizons will 
be opened out for our dcscendents calling for dramatic readjustment of 
human relations and behaviour. This will veritably produce a kind of 
human nature and human values far different from our own. Altruism 
will surely and increasingly take the place of egoism,! oyalty of prudence, 
reverence of equality and justice, and all-embracing love, sharing and 
philanthropy of limited devotions and loyalties to the family, the 
class, the community and the nation. Pan-human charity, fellowship, 
compassion and reverence will have much more extended fields of applica- 
tion in the future social organisation than we can envisage today. Tele- 
pathic communication and feeling and para-psychological intimacy will 
be more widely encountered, .representing a new dimension of human 
sensitiveness and emotions of love and self-transcendence. The Buddha, 
Confucius, Socrates, Christ, Bodhidharma, St. Francis and Chaitanya of the 
future, with their unbounded love and compassion for the lowest and the 
least in society, and their vast reverence for life, will far eclipse the historic 
figures, and the difference between the common man and these exceptional 
men of empathy and goodness will be far less pronounced in the future thin 
at present. The cycle of reciprocities between the changing human nature 
and the changing challenge of the social environment will yield for our 
posterity a spiral of transformations, the components of which do not 
even exist in the present generation. Finally, a more intelligent eugenic 
policy and discriminating sexual selection will establish the superior emerg- 
ing intellectual and moral attributes as more or less hereditary and among 
larger numbers of individuals in the community, stock or race in the future. 
Geneticists anticipate a road to practical eugenics via artificial insemination. 
Bentlcy Glass suggests that someday defective human genes may be mixed 
in the laboratory with healthy genetic material in order to produce normal 
individuals or that the sex of children may be preordered by a device that 
electrically separates the two types of sperm. There is some evidence for 
pre-natal influence by means of the mother's adrenal-cortisone state that 
suggests hope for changing or controlling the qualities of children at birth. 1 

The Future of Man 

Several biologists also think of the possibilities of using certain special 

1 Brosin : Diseases of the Mind in Sol Tax (Ed.) : The Evolution of Man, p. 403. 


hormones or other chemical products to reinforce man's intelligence and 
to dispose him to altruism. Certain stimulating or psychogenic drugs 
are already used to enable mice to find their way about more easily in a 
maze. These have also been found effective in certain cases of mental 
backwardness, certain missing hormones can also artificially stimulate the 
mental activities of idiots. "Thought," observes Carrel, "is the daughter 
of the internal secretions just as much as of the cerebral cortex/' and he 
adds that the Christian virtues are harder to practise when the endocrine 
glands are defective. The French biologists Jean Rostand thinks that 
"super-humanising modifications" can be brought about by chemical do- 
sing. Certain female hormones excite the maternal instinct, tenderness 
and compassion. "The future," says he, "may bring the use of medicines 
that would favour social behaviour, kindness and devotion." He mentions 
the possibilities of DNA (dcsoxyribose nucleic acid) injections and anti- 
cipates a time "when each human infant could receive a standard DNA 
that would confer the most desirable physical and intellectual characteristics. 
Such children will not be the offspring of a particular couple but of the 
entire species." 1 He also discusses the possibility of influencing character 
through the diet, and quotes Dr. Laumoiner who suggests curing jealousy 
with milk, anger with fruit, pride with vegetables, vanity with laxatives 
and avarice with nux vomica.* Aldous Huxley appreciating the recent 
rapid growth of pharmocology and the use of hallucinogens and tranquili- 
zers whose physiological price is exceedingly low considers that pharmoco- 
logists will in the next few years be able to give man joy, peace, sense of 
beauty and loving kindness. Such a gift will not exact the terrible price 
that he has paid so far for resorting to such consciousness-changing drugs 
as heroin, cocaine and alcohol. 8 He will in future be able to change his 
consciousness and relieve his tension without also undergoing any stren- 
uous self-control and spiritual exercises that are now regarded as indispens- 
able and that can only be successfully undertaken by the gifted few. 

The advancing knowledge of biology, ecology, genetics, ethology, 
endrocrinology and chemistry holds out excellent promises of possible 
alterations in human body and mind for adapting them better by directed 
mutation to a less conflictful, fuller and happier life in future. If the above 
natural sciences are rich with possibilities for the production of healthy 
and well-integrated human offspring, for clinical interference with man's 
genetic development, and for improvement of his physical and intellectual 
qualities, the human behavioural sciences, especially child psychology, 
psychiatry and social psychology, have their profound impacts on the 
improvement of human relationships and values. The child's development, 

1 Quoted in Brosin : Diseases of the Mind in Sol Tax (Ed.) : The Evolution of Man, p. 

* Can Man bt Modified, pp. 79-81. 

History of Tension, ibt Scientific Monthly, July 1957. 


physically, intellectually and socially, will be enormously aided in the future 
by the improvement of mother-child relations in the first years of life and of 
child-rearing practices. Psychiatric methods and techniques today correct 
or modify even genetic defects and handicaps not amenable to direct 
methods. More and more the behavioural sciences reject what Jennings 
calls /'the fallacy that showing a characteristic to be hereditary proves that 
it is not alterable by environment." The profounder insights of modern 
psychology, psychiatry and education into the roles of human self-cognition, 
self-valuation and self-transcendence and the functioning of communication 
system in social groups comprise the ingredients upon which to build a 
unified science and art of human fulfilment that are awaiting a Darwin 
or an Einstein. These will increasingly safeguard future man from un- 
wholcsomeness, unhappiness and unfulfilment. That human nature and 
values are both determinants and products of evolution is now accepted 
as a legitimate hypothesis of the behavioural sciences. Human evolution 
occurs on the basis of a silent, ceaseless, fruitful interchange between chang- 
ing mind and values and changing pattern of the environment. As it pro- 
ceeds it becomes more conscious, meaningful, purposeful and moral. 
Knowledge, beauty and love increasingly direct the goal and accelerate the 
tempo of human evolution. Human evolution, with values, creativity, 
sensitiveness and transcendence as its expressions, has unknown possibilities. 



The Principle of Transcendence in 'Evolution 

The emergence of consciousness in cosmos introduces goal-seeking 
into the patterns of adaptation and evolution. With mental evolution and 
the emergence of values and ideals, evolution enters into its highest phase 
that of conscious control, integralness and transcendence. The more 
intelligent animal has its directiveness, and sometimes also its purposiveness 
of adaptation and evolution. This trend of directiveness and purposiveness 
culminates itself in man's conscious and self-transcending value-seeking 
and value-experience. His insights, values and ideals increasingly control 
and direct evolution in all its phases to transcendent dimensions. 

Human understanding which leads to new ways of looking at evolu- 
tion is a product of the whole mind <?f man and the whole experience of the 
species, and not merely of the conscious processes of thought and reason. 
An increasing purposefulness, wholeness and openness characterise evolu- 
tion as it goes along; and in man's evolution these are the outcome as 
much of his intellect, memory and foresight as of his intuition, imagination, 
conscience and faith. By his moral and spiritual strivings towards the 
unity, wholeness, harmony and transcendence of existence he introduces 
an ultimate meaning and goal for the first time into organic evolution, 
and increasingly defines and determines its course that has so far been 
rigidly circumscribed, incoherent and aimless. The emergence of the 
unpredictable and undeducible in human nature, attributes and trends is 
truly speaking, 'transcendence' in cosmic evolution. Human evolution is 
par excellence open, purposeful and transcendent, continuing at a higher 
dimension the evolutionary trend of matter and life, and achieving an ever 
deeper and richer unity, wholeness and harmony in the cosmos. To state 
the same thing in a different manner, due to the exercise of human imagi- 
nation, faith and hope, the meanings and values of cosmic evolution be- 
come open, purposeful and transcendent. Wholeness, openness, purpose- 
fulness and transcendence comprise the very essence of primordial Being 
or Nature, and of the world process which we call Evolution. 

Evolution is a constant, on-going, open process, not a consummation. 
Its endeavour is ever forward -oriented, transcendent. Bio-philosophy 
aims at understanding the transcendent meaning and function of evolution, 
embodied in the structures and activities of manifold life-forms of different 
orders or dimensions. The change and modification, the rise, defeat and 


elimination of the complex patterns of life, filling every nook and corner 
of the environment, obey the transcendent aim. Such a transcendent aim 
directs the living creature as a whole, not its particular organs and functions, 
It was Berg son who was the first to stress that the development of such 
complex sense-organs as the eye and the wing, and of instinct and intelligence 
cannot be accounted for by the preservation of random! variations useful 
to the animal in the evolutionary change from lower to higher forms. 
The whole complicated structure of the eye is assembled in the embryo 
before birth, at a time when it is completely useless functionally. Thus 
it is being built for the "purpose" of later use, and cannot be subsumed 
under an analogous operation of feed back and control according to the 
cybernetic hypothesis. 1 The organism appropriately adapts itself to the 
environment as a totality through its whole being, the sensitivity of its 
total responses to it, its exploration of new possibilities of the life situation 
and its directedness, independence and transcendence of the situation. 

Transcendence is the force behind evolution responsible for the occur- 
rence of mutations, whether useful or dangerous, and for the gradual 
evolutionary progress to higher organisms endowed with consciousness, 
values and purposes. Man is not at all most appropriately adapted to the 
environment. But he is the highest being because he can transcend his 
existential situation and release his emergent values and possibilities more 
and more. 
Man's Adaptation to Undefined Possibilities 

All species of life in the face of hindrances, challenges and tensions 
occupy themselves with the transcending possibilities of the given, cir- 
cumscribed life-situations. Homo sapiens owes his emergence to his ape- 
like ancestors because in encountering the challenges and frustrations of 
the grass-lands and meadows when they had come down from the trees, 
they subjected themselves to broader and less defined possibilities than what 
the anthropoid stock had ever acknowledged. He could amplify, variegate 
and refine intelligently the same mode of behaviour-adaptation of his kith 
and kin, the Homos, oriented anticipatorily and unconsciously towards his un- 
defined possibilities. The brain otHomo sapiens h much more flexible and sen- 
sitive than that of the apes and Homo. 2 The flexibility and sensitiveness of 
the human cortex which have been developed for one million years made 
possible its free use, transcending the immediate biological and social situa- 
tion, for shaping symbolic forms and patterns of mind and behaviour, some- 
times in complete detachment from the environment. The creative and 
transcendent non-adaptive activities of the human cortex cannot be treated 
merely as products of natural selection. These rather embody the univer- 

1 See Elsasser, The Physical Foundation of Biology, p. 4. 

g Simpson : The Meaning of Evolution', Dobzhansky : The Biological Basis of Human 


sal trend of evolution to develop new patterns beyond the stability of the 
organism and its well-adapted mode of behaviour and discover new poten- 
tials of life and organization. The symbolic life of man must be seen as a 
continual exploration and transformation of potentialities of his mind, 
society and environment that provide ever-new challenges for himself. 
Because of his upright posture, fine, flexible cortex and range of 
creation of his symbolising mind and values, no other animal is concerned 
with a more open, comprehensive, indeterminate and transcendent vista 
of potentialities as he is. In fact he alone can selectively, purp osefully 
and unprcdictably govern and direct his career in the light of the transcen- 
dent possibilities of evolution that the cosmos holds out. The cosmos 
is not only transformed into ingredients of his external heritage of goods 
and tools, techniques and institutions, but is also internalised in has mean- 
ings, goals, values and ideals. With each creative effort and transcendence 
of immediate existents, he also refashions his nature and strivings, and 
this becomes the basis of further transcendence of the life -situations and 
possibilities in a spiral of advance. 

It is only a naive biologism and psychologism that circumscribe 
man's goals, values and adjustment within a limited, immediate and 
specific biological situation. He seeks goals and values that may not be 
fully realised. It is his strivings, commitments and aspirations for unat- 
tainable, intrinsic and transcendent values that confer unity, freedom and 
wholeness on his personality, and also establish his meaningful, spiritual 
interchange with existence and cosmos as a whole. The maturation and 
integration of the human mind and self are linked with self-detachment, 
self-extension and self-transcendence rather than with self-love, self-assertion 
and self-actualisation that the current schools of bio-psychology have so 
far stressed. Transcendent insights, appreciations and exaltations, belong- 
ing to those regions of personality that are neglected by psychologists, 
are reflected in all aesthetic, moral and mystical strivings and experiences. 1 
These open out man-and-society and man-and-cosmos transactions or 
osmoses ever more sensitively, harmoniously and comprehensively in human 
evolution. Human genetic change as well as social adaptation, working 
largely through the mechanisms of the language and symbol system, estab- 
lish a continuous and ever-expanding whole of society, mankind and cos- 
mos as products of conscious, forward-oriented, transcendent faculties. 
Both human nature and human evolution undergo radical transformation 
in the totally new type of evolutionary process, due to the accumulation 
of transcendent ideas, values and experiences that in turn make possible 
further transcendent adjustment. 

In human evolution we have, therefore, to postulate the human mind's 

1 Sec Maslow : Cognition of Being in the Peak Experiences, Journal of Gtnttit 
Ptytbology, 1959. 


unpredictable, transcendent dimensions and processes of thought, feeling 
and experience. The structure and mechanisms of human life and mind 
have selectively moved in the direction of greater adaptedness and openness 
through the system of intrinsic and transcendent values and experiences as 
an integral part of the human heritage. Neither human evolution nor human 
values can have final forms as long as man and cosmos transactions con- 
tinue. It is wrong to think of cosmic evolution without the role of human 
transcendence in its completion and perfection. It is man's imagination 
and valuation that by constituting more comprehensive, more harmonious 
and intrinsically better wholes which keep the cosmos on-going in its infi- 
nite ranges of space and time. Transcendence of meanings, values and pos- 
sibilities is inherent in life and mind, and in the things and eventuations of 
the cosmos which supply the materials on which the former work. What 
is transcendent and what is existent in evolution belong to the same stuff. 
The chain of evolution of matter, life and mind is a chain of growing free- 
dom, wholeness and transcendence. Such is the theory of "open" and 
"transcendent" evolution. 
Man's Approximation to the Transcendent Quality of Nature 

Evolution expresses itself in each species of life, each individual, each 
mind, each personality and each value, but is never exhausted by its specific 
expressions. It transcends while it infuses them all. It has a perfection 
of range and scope since the cosmos cannot contain any as yet unrealised, 
incomplete and imperfect forms of life, mind, value or potentials. The 
manifold forms and appearances of life, mind and value, each with its 
individual adaptation or mode of fulfilment with different limits and at 
different levels or dimensions, arc all derived from the primordial Being, 
whence the impulse of the all-pervasive, ramifying, evolutionary process 
proceeds. The Being may well be conceived as abstract and impersonal, 
or having something of that unity and individuality which we associate 
with mind, values and personality. In each case what is the primordial^ 
universal or transcendent cause becomes the immanent essence of finite, 
living individuals who are at once creatures and creators, products of, 
and participants in, the life universal. As Whitehead would say, "the 
existents in Nature share in the nature of the immanent Eternal Being." 1 
The potentiality of Being or cosmos is immanent in the actuality of the 
form and function of life. Both eternal Being or cosmos cherish at heart 
most the uniqueness, freedom and creativity of life, mind and purpose for 
all individual forms, sharing in the unrealised, transcendent values and 
potentialities of cosmos. Of all life that is individuated human life ap- 
proximates most to the life cosmic, and is most effectively informed, guided, 

1 Adventures of Ideas, p. 1 66; compare Montague: Gnat Visions of Philosophy > pp. 424- 



restrained and directed by the transcendental quality and purpose of Being 
or cosmos. 

The Human Instinct and Value of Self -Transcendence 

It is clear enough that out of his multi-dimensional environment and 
experiences of adaptation and development, man develops transcending 
goals, purposes and values. These are synthetic products of life, mind 
and society, and sustain, elevate, refine and direct human life, relations 
and processes at all dimensions and in all sectors. There are, therefore, 
various configurations of goals and values. But inter-relation, coordina- 
tion, balance, stability and transcendence are their invariable characteristics, 
appropriate for the sustenance and furtherance of individual and social 
living in all its range, depth and togetherness. 

Values, purposes and norms, integrative, regulative and transcendent, 
introduce orderliness into man's social universe and give it a continuous 
history, meaning and sense of destiny* 1 Values are the "laws," instruments 
and directives of human social evolution guiding its ascent to greater 
freedom, wholeness and transcendence. Values are differentiated into ins- 
trumental and intrinsic, specific and abstract, existential and transcendent 
values. The instrumental and specific values are those of health, efficiency, 
wealth, status and security, concrete and realised. The intrinsic, abstract 
and transcendent values are those of truth, beauty and goodness, ideal and 
unrealisable. Man has a natural instinct and capacity for self-extension and 
self-transcendence. These are rooted in the mammalian, and especially 
anthropoid, disposition for loving care and sacrifice for offspring, and 
the unique human foresight, memory and imagination, and enable him 
to over-reach the finite situation and the immediate goal. 2 His mental 
make-up is such that he alternates between actuality and potentiality, bet- 
ween immediacy and timelessness, between fractionalism and integralness, 
and between concreteness and universality in his everyday adjustment to 
the world and its events. He seizes the eternal, integral and transcendent 
values by reason of their immanence in the temporal, specific and existential. 
'He lives indeed a dual life, partly in the potential, transcendent and 
future, and partly in the actual, existential and immediate. Yet the 
two aspects of his essence and existence are fused with each other. An 
incomplete blend or unresolved conflict between his actuality and poten- 
tiality, between his immediate existence and anticipatory transcendence 
makes the creature whose peculiar instinct and capacity are those of free- 
dom and transcendence, a psycho-biological misfit and failure. Thus does 
he experience and realise his adaptation and evolution in terms of both 

1 Mukerjee : The Social Structure of Values', Urban : Fundamentals of Ethics. 
1 A. M. Montagu : The Direction of Human Development. 


his own self-transcendence and the essential wholeness and transcendence 
of each situation and goal beyond itself. 

Value-Scale Fundamental in TrLuman 'Evolution 

A "general" theory of human evolution must, accordingly, be rooted 
in the differentiation and the hierarchy of normal value experience that 
orders- and integrates the patterns of social relations, behaviour and or- 
ganisation in a stable and consistent manner. All social evolution is a 
movement from the immediate, specific and instrumental to the intrinsic, 
universal and transcendent goals and values. The "field' ' -concept of the 
interaction or "transaction" between Man Values and Cosmos stresses 
human evolution within a unified system, and self-direction towards a 
specific coordinated unity of structure and activities, towards self-reflective, 
dynamic balance, organisation and macroscopic orderliness and interpenet- 
ration. This is the kernel of the "general laws" of human evolution that 
seeks to synthesize the problems of wholeness and dimensions of goals, 
values and norms of behaviour, which organise and integrate social life and 
guide the individual to a better and richer adaptation to his physical and 
social environment and a fuller realisation of his potentialities. In social 
evolution the development and perfection of the individual become identi- 
fied with the general progress of society and humanity, and this in terms of 
intrinsic values and norms exercised in reflective direction and control of 
human progress. The elevation and refinement of motivation, goals and 
values means the qualitative advance of man and civilization to an extent 
unrealised today; while their debasement quickly leads to their degradation 
and destruction. 

The emergence of mind and predominance of conceptual thought, 
valuation and reflective, purposive behaviour have entirely altered the 
criteria and mechanisms of biological progress. To evolution as it reaches 
the human level are now added the criteria and norms of development of 
mind, values and society. Man's improvement of adaptation and control 
over the environment consist in the creation, realisation and transmission 
of his intellectual, aesthetic and spiritual values, both as individual and as 
species. His independence of the environment is judged with reference 
to his choice and fulfilment of intrinsic and transcendent values, his self- 
competence, freedom, poise and wholeness, and his at-homeness with man- 
kind and cosmos as wholes. 

Humanity sets up a "natural" scale or hierarchy of goals and values, 
and true human evolution must be directed to the fulfilment of goals and 
values in relation to a well-established pan-human scale the priority of 
intrinsic, universal and transcendent to instrumental, operational and speci- 
fic values, of social and spiritual to biological and economic ends and pur- 
poses. Such a natural gradation of ends and values of individuals and 
societies, to which the history of human civilization bears general testi- 


mony, is the very essence of human adaptation in different levels and dimen- 
sions of environment, biological, social and ideal. 

The scaling of values, reflected upon, clarified and approved by social 
judgment, and cumulatively strengthened and transmitted as ethical tradi- 
tion, is registered in the moral order of society and in the unity of per- 
sonality. Values and value-orientation carry with them the resources and 
responsibility of the moral individual for right choice and social action, 
and for communicating and embodying these in the ethical principles and 
norms of the social order. 

Evolutionary Transcendence versus Evolutionary Naturalism 

As new modes of mastery and improvement of the environment, 
physical, moral and cultural, emerge as a result of communication and 
dissemination of symbols devices of pure intellectual construction, modes 
of aesthetic apprehension, expressions of moral judgment and revelations 
of mystical self-transcendence the mechanisms operative in pre-human 
evolution are entirely changed. The acquired social and moral environment 
of man becomes the focus and reservoir of all the evolutionary processes 
of the past working through the present into the unrealised, unpredictable 
future. The individual's memory, foresight, imagination, conscience and 
faith are all aided by the cultural tradition as he seeks to transcend himself 
and fulfil new possibilities. Evolution in man is far less change in the 
pool of his genes, and far more a change of his complex, acquired cultural 
environment which effectively transmits the techniques, ideas, habits, values 
and experiences of the past to the present and future generations for the 
achievement of new human potentialities. 

The aim, direction and processes of evolution are all transformed. It 
will be more appropriate to say that mind, personality and values entirely 
change the dimension on which evolution occurs. Man has become the 
agent and trustee of open and "transcendent" evolution. This is tanta- 
mount to the replacement of Evolutionary "Naturalism" by Evolutionary 
Transcendence, and rejects what Whitehead has characterised as "the bifur- 
cation of nature." Man's evolutionary goals achieve emergent, unrealised, 
unpredictable potentials of, and for his own nature, and include the quali- 
ties of the cosmos-as-a whole as an essential part of his own development. 

The current natural science theory of human evolution, as yielded by 
the biological, psychological and social disciplines, eschews all considera- 
tions of goals and values. It ignores not only the basic hierarchy of human 
needs, goals and values but also the triple dimensions or orders of human 
environment and adaptation with corresponding differences between the 
instrumental and proximate values, dealt with by the various social sciences, 
and the intrinsic, transcendent and ultimate values with which religion, 
education and morals are concerned. The distinction between the ins- 
trumental values of sustenance, status, wealth, power and security, accepted 


as the goals of the social sciences, and the intrinsic, transcendent and ultimate 
values of truth, beauty and goodness and of personality has now become 
crucial for human survival itself. The complete exclusion of values from 
the picture of human evolution is largely the outcome of the "scientism" 
and profound distrust of values and valuations among all social sciences 
that, truly speaking, are all trans-empirical. 
Social Evolution, a Process of Value Creation and Communication 

Obviously in the give-and-take between man and his environment, 
comprising various dimensions or orders, it is the biological goals of the hu- 
man animal that are transformed into values. Values represent stable patterns 
of behaviour-adaptation, and at the same time constantly explore new human 
situations and possibilities. These arrange themselves according to a 
"natural" scale corresponding to the dimensions or orders of human mind, 
environment and behaviour. At the same time these spring from, and 
direct the whole mind, and guide the total behaviour-adaptation to the 
environment-as-a whole. The unity of man's mind is reflected in the 
evolution of a unified value system, that, however, like mind itself, cons- 
tantly discovers new relations, new wholes and new transcendences. 

Whitehead observes : "Values require each other. The essential 
character of the world of value is coordination. Its activity consists in 
the approach to multiplicity by the adjustment of its many potentialities 
into finite unities, each unity with a group of dominant ideas of values, 
mutually interwoven, and reducing the infinity of values into a graduated 
perspective, fading into complete exclusion." 1 The scheme of values 
presents itself to man's developing mind and behaviour as a universal, 
hyper-personal scale, gradation or hierarchy. By participation in values 
and value-coordination, he achieves peace, security and dignity within 
himself, and at the same time guides and directs the course of his evolution 
to its essential destiny. Values and value hierarchy build up groups, insti- 
tutions, societies and civilizations, and integrate and order social relations, 
statuses and roles that become themselves seats of existential and transcen- 
dent values. These mould the ideal or transcendent dimensions of the 
personality and the range and depth of human civilization, governing the 
entire forward-oriented career of the human species. 

The process of social evolution is essentially one of creation, learning 
and communication of values and value-orientation and of the social tech- 
niques and means of achieving them. Such achievement confers status, 
prestige and privilege on the individual from the social side, and self-esteem 
and dignity from the psychological side. Value-seeking and value-fulfil- 
ment pave the way for the creation of more values and higher values. On 
the other hand, denial or failure to achieve the major values prized by 
society implies not only loss of social status but also personal disorganisa- 

1 The Philosophy of Alfred North Wbitebtad, pp. 692-693. 


tion. Man constantly modifies the acquired values, and learns and also 
transforms the means of acquiring them. There is a constant interchange 
between the value-seeking person, the constellation of values and the 
configuration of groups and institutions that are both foci and aids to the 
evaluating person in the fulfilment of values. Ultimately all values are 
judged in terms of their intrinsic or instrumental, existential or transcen- 
dent character. 
The Genesis of Value-Hierarchy in Human 'Evolution 

A "natural" division between intrinsic and instrumental values, bet- 
ween transcendent and existential values arises due to a dichotomy in 
human mind and evolution. Man's apprehension and control of the en- 
vironment operate on a dual basis : first, the development and manipula- 
tion of specific images, interests and values for facilitating and directing 
knowledge and experiences of separate events; and, second, of unified 
images, interests and values as wholes or continuums of events, not in their 
discrete singleness as in the former case but in their collective integralncss 
and transcendence. Psychologically constituted as he is, he wants to under- 
stand and appreciate his world both in separate singleness and as whole. 
This recurrent alteration in the trend of the human mind is the source of 
the division between instrumental or specific and intrinsic or transcendent 
goals and values. The mind of the child and of primitive man starts with 
a consciousness of unity of self and world, conscious and unconscious, 
individual and community. 1 As evolution proceeds there is an awareness 
of a split between these dichotomies that were previously fused into a 
magical and mythical unity associated with bliss. Such awareness of the 
existential split is subject to a development, which according to Weisskopf, 
takes place on both phylogenetic and ontogenetic level. There is inter- 
relation between them because the individual repeats the development of 
the species. 2 The dualism between intrinsic or transcendent and instru- 
mental or specific values is rooted in the split in human experience and 
thought. Social evolution is a process of the differentiation of values and 
categories of judgment into the intrinsic and the instrumental, contributing 
towards the evolution of the mind's plasticity, freedom and transcendence. 
It shows the progressive creation and realisation of instrumental and existen- 
tial values through the development of technology and arts of utilisation 
and proliferation of jobs, occupations and professions; and of intrinsic 
and transcendent values through the adventures and experiences of know- 
ledge, morality, art and religion. Every civilization, unless it has gone en- 
tirely off its feet, achieves an adequate balancing and reconciliation of the 
pursuit of both intrinsic or transcendental and instrumental or existential 
ends and values. Every individual, unless he is warped and malformed 

1 Neumann : The Origins and History of Consciousness. 

* Weisskopf : Existence and Values in Maslow : New Knowledge in Human Values, p.iio. 


in his mind and behaviour, develops disinterestedness, flexibility and capa- 
city for abstraction, enabling him to distinguish between instrumental or 
existential and intrinsic or transcendent values and experiences. Neither 
existential nor transcendent values can live and thrive in isolation. Exis- 
tential and transcendent values require and aid one another. But this is 
not true of all civilizations or stages of social evolution. Sometimes a 
civilization so develops that intrinsic or transcendent ends and values are 
not held too dear, and sacrificed at the altar of instrumental or existential 
ends and values, or the former are transformed in their forms of expres- 
sion and fulfilment for the resolution of inner tensions and conflicts. 
Where the civilization or the social situation is such that only a few instru- 
mental or existential values are sought and achieved, and the energies of 
men are completely canalised for the purpose, social evolution receives a 
serious set-back. The long-time, exclusive search of fixed, instrumental 
ends and values becomes self-defeating a handicap to social adaptation 
and evolution, an impediment to full understanding and control of the 
cosmos. Man's evolutionary advance, the progress of mind and society, 
are an evolution of the totality of values that can deal with the entire realm 
of possibilities in the cosmos. The spurts of his advance are represented 
by the creation and dissemination of new intrinsic and transcendent values. 
Through such new values he perceives and conceives the cosmos afresh, 
for there is no absolute separation between values and cosmos or reality. 

The Unification of Cosmos ly Values 

The vast cosmos whose scope of harmony and perfection is unlimited 
and unfulfilled, and the human self which seeks and achieves the supreme 
intrinsic and transcendent values in the most perfect possible unity and 
harmony with the cosmos are in endless, dynamic infusion and osmosis. 
The self is possessed of a finite nature, but is potentially the seat and vehicle 
of the single, all-comprehensive and all-perfect realisation of intrinsic and 
transcendent values and possibilities, pertinent to other selves and to the 
cosmos. Due to human imagination and valuation, the cosmos ever seeks 
the maximum harmonisation of all parts and beings within itself. 

The cosmos, in spite of its stubbornness and incoherence,its suffering 
and evil, presents before man undefined and unexpected possibilities of 
himself, of his fellow-beings and also of itself. Located within the boun- 
daries of time and space and resisted by things, fellowmen and forces with- 
in them, man's evolution, though spatialized and temporalized, extends 
beyond limited regions and epochs. Its limitlessness corresponds to that 
of the cosmos, and matches unpredictable novelties and turns in his career, 
fresh harmonies of his adjustment, and fluent experiences of his goals, 
values and fulfilments. Human careers, values and fulfilments comprise 
an experienced whole in which other beings and cosmos are involved a 
common pool of values for the sensitive, open community of the cosmos. 


Values become absolute, universal and timeless like the cosmos-reality, 
and promote the experience of cosmos-reality in which he and all fellow- 
men are maximally integrated, harmonised and perfected. Absolute and 
transcendent values are identical with the all-comprehensive patterns and 
possibilities which man had encountered in the previous stages of his 
evolution and survival. But these were transformed by him into narrow 
and distorted ends and goals of a limited environment on .which he acted. 
In contrast with the animal, he is permanently bound to fulfil the absolute 
and transcendent values, to transcend his limited biological environment 
and immediate life-situation. The self which is superficial, ego-centric 
and cramped, instead of being resourceful, open and transcendent, is a 
drag on evolution. 

Cosmos infiltrations, infinite in time and unlimited in subtlety and per- 
vasiveness, instil in man ever new impulses and aspirations. Cosmos and 
man comprise a framework of interwoven processes and values. Due to 
this inter-weaving and infusion the cosmos with its many potentialities 
appears as multiplicity, and human value as unity, harmony and coordina- 
tion. . 

It is the rhythms and symmetries of the cosmos which elicit and nourish 
the values and strivings of truth, goodness, beauty and transcendence, 
emphasizing the essential unity of the many. Both the multiplicity of the 
cosmos and the unity of values, mutually inter-dependent, are inexhaustible. 
The cosmos is truer, nobler and more beautiful man's truest, noblest 
and loveliest selves. The unlimited and unfathomable cosmos fosters un- 
limited and unfathomable selves. Man's open, transcending self can not 
only endure but requires an open, infinite cosmos which he can fill with his 
insatiable wonder, adoration, sense of beauty, care and solicitude. It is the 
cosmos which mirrors itself in the incredible courage, majesty and striving 
not only of the lonely self in its detached contemplation of the cosmos, but 
also of the many selves that are neighbours, and equally fragments of the 
cosmos. Man, neighbour and cosmos together constitute an open system of 
interlocked processes, a unity of multiplicities which is called Evolution. 
The rich and variegated texture of Evolution is woven out of the 

warp and woof of unity and harmony, order and beauty, truth and good- 
ness. The experience of the unity, beauty and harmony of Evolution is 
grounded on the supreme moral and aesthetic perfection of the self and 
its identification with the mankind-and-cosmos process as an emergent, 
harmonious whole. In this manner the open values of the self in the 
unlimited cosmos exhibit endless possibilities of enhancement and realisa- 
tion in the infinite multiplicity and complexity of Evolution. 

The understanding of Evolution demands the appreciation of both 
the endless variety and multiplicity of the open cosmos and its unending 
essential unification and coordination by the open self and values. 


Because of the self and values the cosmos cannot comprise any unfulfilled 
fellow-men or possibilities. Open and transcendent Evolution ever 
advances towards perfection of harmony and fulfilment which man identi- 
fies with Beauty or Goodness. Open Evolution and Beauty or Goodness 
make each other possible. 



The Genesis of Moral Values 

In the track of organic evolution man has emerged as a successful and 
dominant social animal. The transition from the pre-human primate to 
Homo sapiens is brought about by human genes favouring intelligence and 
educability, symbolic thought and use of tools and language and the deve- 
lopment of social feelings and sentiments. 1 Natural selection through 
thousands of centuries of his living as an omnivorous hunter and food- 
gatherer implanted in him not only rage, aggressiveness and greed, but 
also certain feelings of identity and shared emotions and values appropriate 
for his living in society. At the human dimension, the social is the moral. 
Darwin himself clearly recognised this. He observed, "The moral sense 
perhaps affords the best and highest distinction between man and the lower 
animals ; but I need say nothing on this hand, as I have so lately endea- 
voured to shew that the social instincts, the prime principle of man's moral 
constitution with the aid of active intellectual powers and the effects of 
habit, naturally lead to the golden rule, "As ye would that men should do 
to you, do ye to them likewise"; and this lies at the foundation of morality." 12 
Many moral impulses and patterns of behaviour are forged in the crucible 
of biological evolution. These have now become a part and parcel of 
his genetic equipment. 

The foundation of human evolution is provided, no doubt, by human 
genes, but because man's adjustment in his open, man-and-time surpassing 
environment shows considerable phenotypic plasticity, and is profoundly 
influenced by the processes of learning and acquisition of values and sym- 
bols obtained from fellow-man and cosmos, his evolution is largely morally 
rather than biologically determined. The development of his techniques 
of adaptation and survival rests largely on the learning and transmission 
of his unique and complex moral mechanisms and values. These resolve 
chronic conflicts between instinctual needs and social demands, canalise 
his basic drives through socially constructive channels and achieve the 
maturity of rational and harmonious social living. Moral habits, attitudes 
and values have become, for the most part, the means o'f psycho-social 
evolution. Man, however, is no mere biological or social being. He is 

1 Sec J. S. Huxley : Touch stone for Ethics-, and Dobzhansky : The Biological Basis of 
Human Freedom ', p. 132. 

2 Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, pp. 494-95. 


endowed with instincts of, and tendencies toward, self-transcendence. 
Seeking wholeness, openness, freedom and transcendence he is something 
very different from the biological or the social animal. The transcendent 
creature as he is, he does not seek mere bio-social adjustment and con- 

Human evolution has safeguarded man's biological and social con- 
tinuity and dominance, and equipped him not only with tenderness, love 
and altruism with their ever-widening ambits but also with abstract intel- 
ligence and thought and capacity for symbolisation that enable him to 
transcend himself, his society and his environment. Human values, though 
instruments of selection and survival, cannot accordingly be derived from 
biological processes and from organic evolution. These are relative, but 
their ultimate relationship is to man's evolutionary destiny as a whole. 
His capacities for conceptualisation, symbolisation and identification enable 
him to think and adjust himself in terms of his open, unlimited, and impon- 
derable symbolic environment that far surpasses his finite biological environ- 
ment at any given time. His adaptedness is quite regardless of the natural 
conditions and aims of selection and survival of selection and survival 
of the individual and the species. Organic evolution is utilitarian, prag- 
matic and exceedingly short-sighted. It cannot be planned nor manipulated 
in terms of abstractions, appreciations and identifications or empathies. 
Man's self-transcending insights and ultimate values plan and direct his 
evolutionary development in dimensions and qualities of experience that 
transcend life and survival. 

Human nature and values are a part at once of the biological and the 
cultural heritage. Organised society and culture aid man in seeking and 
achieving a given set of intrinsic values, the fulfilment of which becomes 
associated with his creativity, freedom and transcendence, and not with 
mere adaptation and survival. Human civilization distinguishes between 
the proximate and ultimate values, and directs through education, 
role-and-status system, law, moral code and public opinion that every man 
should prefer the latter to the former. This is the basic ethical process. 
Evolution at the human dimension is essentially purposive, moral and 
prophetic. It culminates forwards in transcendent mind, values and morality 
that fully and perfectly realise the potentialities of the person. 
The Ordering of Values in Moral Involution 

Human evolution is an ascent of consciousness and values represented 
by a well-established priority of the intrinsicalities of truth, beauty and 
goodness to the instrumental biologic and economic goals and satisfac- 
tions. This is often aided and secured, however, by the improvement of 
biological status and economic well-being, i.e. health, efficiency, longevity 
and liberty, and the many-sided control and amelioration of environmental 
conditions. An improvement of technic-industrial, housing and living 


conditions, relaxation of economic pressure and change in the set-up of 
economic institutions create new intrinsic values and new patterns of 
goals and behaviour for the individual. There are re-education and reso- 
cialisation of individuals and groups who more and more seek and achieve 
intrinsic and ultimate rather than instrumental and proximate values. As 
the personality and modes of social relations and behaviour are transformed 
through trial and error or a deliberate social policy, the old hierarchy of 
values with its associated status-prestige scheme, traditions and rights and 
duties is given up. Intrinsic, ultimate and transcendent values are enhanced 
rather than reduced through sharing, and become powerful social binders. 
As these became accessible and achievable goals for a larger and larger 
number of persons, the entire culture or social situation as an "inter-sub- 
jective field", comprising the unity of the value-seeking person, the set of 
values and the society, undergoes a marked qualitative change for the 
better. The manner in which the architecture of values develops is a matter 
of the set-up of social institutions and the ongoing processes of mind, 
morals and society. 

The wholeness and compositeness of values, the hierarchy of intrinsic 
and instrumental and of transcendent and existential values, and the in- 
tegral character of the social-moral process alike demand the treat- 
ment of human evolution in the background of values and value- 
orientations. Social evolution calls for ever new adaptations, ever more 
appropriate human roles and statuses as life-expressions, as discoveries of, 
and strivings towards greater fullness and richness of value-creation and 
achievement that determine and regulate the chequered course of human 

Changes in the economic environment and the arts and technologies 
and social and economic shif tings constantly engender new conflicts and 
frustrations and demand new values, statuses and obligations that can be 
comprehended only by the disciplines that dwell on the truths, beauties, 
goodnesses and transcendences of life. On the other hand, given a knowledge 
of type-values and of their order and scaling in a given civilization, it is 
possible to determine their significant social and moral consequences, and 
predict with a high degree of certainty social and moral changes. 

Finally, the biological and social disciplines should recognise man's 
evolutionary advance through greater freedom and selective and purpo- 
sive control of the environment as accruing from his choice and attainment 
of intrinsic, universal and transcendent values in harmony with the instru- 
mental, specific and existential ones. Human progress is measured by man's 
control and direction of the processes of value-choice and value-transfor- 
mation of which he is a product. Out of the process of adaptation and 
control that rises from dimension to dimension emerge his orientation of 
values, his scaling of intrinsic and instrumental and of altruistic and egoistic 


values that he revises and re-interprets as social evolution proceeds. 
He defines social evolution through his increased rational cognition and 
control of his environment, and this implies the qualitative improvement 
of his dispositions and capacities to take into account all the values, all the 
moral attitudes, habits and norms that he considers worth while and orders 
them according to a system. The law of morality is that the normal, mature 
human mind in rationally dealing with the values involved in a given 
situation chooses the intrinsic and transcendent values that can be most 
widely shared by fellowmen, such choice being inevitable due to the 
structure of the human mind itself. Such a law guides and directs the 
mechanisms of the socio-genic evolutionary system, and selects and fosters 
the human qualities and capacities that the latter brings about. This may 
be called human 'anagenesis' or evolutionary progress. 
Ethics and the Psychological Theory of Value Hierarchy 

Both the "field" theory of modern psychology and Jung's theory of 
the "collective unconscious", comprising the archetypal symbols derived 
from the intellectual and moral heritage of the race, give support to the 
assumption that the human mind has some sort of a scale, a kind of hierarchy 
of values to which his loyalties and allegiances can be related. 1 The pre- 
ferences not of neurotics but of healthy and wholesome human beings show 
what is good for the human mind and evolution in the long run. The 
motivations of sick persons cannot be equated with those of healthy persons. 
The latter aim not at ego-centric, scgmentally motivated goals but at whole- 
some, shared goals that take due consideration of n. totality of beliefs, interests 
and values. Intrinsic values imply balance, harmony and integration of 
goals and interests and self-transcendence in terms of a wholeness which 
potentially pre-exists in the human person. The bio-ethical con- 
cept of self-transcendence, the axiological concept of the hegemony of 
intrinsic, ultimate and transcendent values and the metaphysical concept 
of human Essence or Being have in common the open, holistic, integrating 
human evolutionary trend. 

Intrinsic and ideal values, no doubt, refer to a wider context, a larger 
total of meanings, satisfactions and experiences than instrumental values 
and are therefore superior intellectual tools, in the sense of Dewey, which 
guide human behaviour and evolution. This also points to the order of 
"natural" strength and priority of intrinsic values for general self-actualisa- 
tion and self-transcendence of the person. Human valuation is derived 
from the fundamental theory or law of priority of intrinsic and ultimate 
values to instrumental and specific values, just as applied science and techno- 
logy are derived from the fundamental laws or theories of physics. Modern 
physics has transformed the external human-world. The science of values, 

1 K. J. Ncwmann: Tyranny and Group Loyalties* Philosophy, July, 1943. 


once it is fully comprehended, will similarly transform human values, 
society and civilization the internal world of human living and experience, 
and subtly and profoundly direct human evolution. Human ethics is con- 
cerned with both the freedom, wholeness and transcendence of mind or 
self, and the openness of values, of man, society and cosmos as wholes. 
From this viewpoint anything that inhibits or thwarts the openness, whole- 
ness or transcendence of self and values is wrong, that which fosters or 
fulfills it is right. Such is the prophetic morality of man's evolutionary trend. 

Morality as Instrument of Purposive Social Selection 

It is clear that man constantly remakes society and civilization and their 
role-status-prestige scheme, moral code and rights and duties by his 
value orientations. These relate to his establishment of the "natural" 
supremacy of intrinsic, ideal or ultimate values over instrumental social 
values, and of instrumental social values over instrumental bio-ecological 
values. In the triple dimensions of man's adaptation, bio-ecological, 
social and ideal or transcendent, value-seeking, coordination and choice 
constantly go on. This provides, indeed, the major key to the realisation 
of potentialities of the person and to moral progress. Man's values are 
enduring and timeless, but they can only be effectively realised in the world 
of social change. Evolution is ever changeful, full of crises and spurts, 
but the world of values remains perennial and unchanging, stressing the 
essential unity of human nature and of man's moral experience. If life 
requires the fitness of the physical environment for man's organic function- 
ing and growth, human values with their "natural" scale or gradation, rooted 
in the integrity, creativeness and transcendence of the human nature, are 
enduring instruments or mechanisms for the control of the physical en- 
vironment via his conscience and cultural and moral heritage. Such ins- 
truments or mechanisms largely supersede natural by conscious, purposive 
selection, and ideally direct human development through the push forward of 
human nature towards fuller and fuller actualisation of its potentialities. In 
the world of moral and ideal values we leave the wprld of adaptation and 
change and enter the world of permanence and immortality. There is a 
dynamic give-and-take between the immortal and transcendent world 
of morality and the finite, temporal world of human relation?, be- 
haviour and institutions. All human relations are immortalised as seats 
of goodness achieved ; the manifold possibilities of moral and ideal 
eternal values embody themselves in the multiplicity and temporality of 
human adjustments. 

The Ontologlcal Approach to Value and Involution 

Man's value-pattern embodies his enduring experiences and strivings 
in the course of his adaptation to the cosmos via his society and morality. 
It bears a lasting testimony to the patterns of social and moral communion 


that direct, integrate and organise evolution and become expressions of 
the zest and efficacy of Life and creativeness of Being. 

The value system pertains to the coordination and interpenetration of 
the triple dimensions of his environment and evolution bio-ecological, 
social and transcendent. Embodying universal, formative, vital social and 
ideal tendencies in progressive human patterns, values intermesh. The 
various dimensions of human adaptation and values overlap, intersect 
and interpenetrate one another. Each advance in social evolution is the 
consequence of a better order^and harmony and a fuller comprehension of 
Being, and all values, economic, social, and moral and ideal, are involved 
in the creative process of Becoming. Stability, consistency, balance, unity 
in variety and transcendence characterise all value-creation, embodying the 
goal dnd purpose of sustaining, furthering and expanding Being and its 
possibilities. In value creation, choice and fulfilment, moral values are central 
as these are involved in all human relations and potentialities. It is the 
ideal, open or transcendent dimension of Being, rooted in human potentia- 
lities rather than actualities, and the moral values and norms that largely, 
consciously or unconsciously, guide and control evolutionary development. 

Ethical principles originate during primate evolution but are realised 
more articulately, consciously and completely in human directioned deve- 
lopment towards self-actualisation and self-transcendence. First, the strivings 
for self-actualisation and self-transcendence in terms of wholeness and com- 
munion with the cosmos, and moral strivings and values are dynamically 
related to each other. Secondly, man in the process of his self-actualisation 
and self-transcendence develops an integrative and harmonious value system 
which synthesizes opposites, and affirms and achieves complete freedom 
and transcendence the realisation of his essence or Being. In the creative 
ground of Being all polarities of values and strivings are balanced and 
reconciled. Human evolution cannot escape from the polarities of existence 
and values that are aggravated by society and morality, and that can be 
harmonised only in the higher spiritual dimension of unity and, transcen- 
dence of Being. The self-actualising and the self-transcending nature of 
Being is the ontological locus of moral values. The system of values, 
conscience, faith and transcendence are all derived from the essential nature 
of man, the structure of the ultimate reality or Being, 

The Progressive Pattern in Moral Evolution 

We may now survey the various dimensions or stages of human evo- 
lution, values and morality that embody a progressive series and are in- 
tegrated into an open, holistic, balanced, dynamic system : 


















i. Bio-ecological Sustenance, Bio-psychologi- Interest- Recipro- Prudence 

Dominance and cal Control Group city 


2. Social 


Social Integra- Community Justice Loyalty 

3 . Transcendent Personality and Spiritual At- Man-kind- Love Reverence 

Character homeness, Self- as-a-whole 


Biologically, life is always maintained by balance, integration and 
interdependence. In the human body, as in the body of any other mammal, 
there is sometimes a lag or discontinuity in the adaptation of one part to 
functional disturbances or changes in another part which is largely corrected 
by "homeostasis." The large and sensitive brain in man has proved a far 
more useful tool for the purposes of his biological stability and balance than 
any physiological "homeostasis" or mutation could be. Human conscious- 
ness introduces a long chain of psychological and social homeostases for 
achieving balances and harmonies out of functional disturbances and malad- 
justments. Human social evolution and survival depend upon continual 
homeostatic balance and reconciliation of needs, ideas, techniques and 
values in different dimensions or orders of adaptation. Morality is the 
central homeostatic process of man's total adaptation to his conditions of 
existence and progress in the psycho-social environment. There are no 
social relations and behaviour that are not moral. The principles of social 
evolution and the ethical norms are congruent, fitting into the particular 
context and level of social adaptation and experience. "All morality, be 
it pressure and aspiration," as Bergson has said, "is in essence biological." 1 
All human evolution engenders and transmits values and morality. 

Though there are misfits and maladjustments, defeats and backslidings 
without number, we witness a progressive trend mediated by moral prin- 
ciples and norms which are derived from the impact of the changing ex- 
ternal world on the minds of men via groups and institutions. Ethical 
norm emerges with the growth and maturation of mental life that are 
stimulated by group intimacy and experience. Morality, in other words, 
springs from man's group connection, his sense of communion and sharing, 
the feeling that he must transcend his private world of impulses, desires 
and emotions. A part of morality is internalised in the structure of self 
as super-ego, conscience and faith that show a qualitative development 
from the irrationality and ego-centricity of childhood to the rational self- 

1 The Two Sources of Morality and Rjtligion t p. 91. 


extension and self-transcendence of the adult. This is stimulated and 
promoted by the transition of the social milieu from the Interest-group 
through Community to open and ideal Commonalty of Mankind. Another 
part of morality is embodied in the group expectancies, norms, values and 
sanctions that socially orientate the behaviour of the individual. The moral 
mechanisms comprise a natural process of transformation of the individual- 
in-groups. We can, therefore, correctly gr?de one type of social grouping 
as being morally superior to another, and assess moral evolution in the 
background of the change of social milieu from the Interest-group through 
Community to (id^al) Commonalty or open society of the earth. 

Moral evolution in general depends on the development of psycholo- 
gical mechanisms and techniques of human adaptation to the bio-physical 
conditions of liv ng and maturation in the psycho-social dimension of the 
human personality. Human depth, morals and commitment are higher 
in the Community than in the Interest-group, and the highest in the 
abstract Commonalty groups or ideal brotherhoods of mankind. Evolution 
at the psycho-social dimension identifies man's freedom and obligation with 
the most profound depth of the self and the largest extension of the human 
community. His transcendence, justice and altruism in one word, moral 
ideal enter into evolution that becomes "open", achieving unknown 
possibilities of his nature. The successive ethical norms of Reciprocity, 
Justice and Love and virtues of Prudence, Loyalty and Reverence that 
emerge in the moral evolution of mankind in the successive ideal types 
of groups, Interest-group, Community and Commonalty comprise the 
indispensable cultural mechanisms or organs that guide the evolution of 
the individual and groups* the progressive patterns of impulsion associated 
with the development of society and the personality of man evolving to- 
gether by reciprocal transactions into ever new transcending qualities. 

'Empirical "Principles in Moral Evolution 

It is clear that from the point of view of the level and unity of organi- 
sation we witness a more or less continual improvement in group participa- 
tion or integration, morale, depth and commitment of the personality, 
typified by the movement from the Interest-group through Community 
to open and (abstract) Mankind-as-a whole which corresponds to the 
ideal of the World Organisation now dawning upon the minds and hearts 
of men. From the three "ideal types" of social participation that cover 
all possible stable human associations, and are marked by improvement in 
the level of psychological maturity emerge the corresponding moral norms 
of Reciprocity, Justice and Love. These norms are psychological impera- 
tives, derived from the bonds of typical groups in social development, 
from the nature of evolutionary changes undergone in the personality- 
social process. These express the direction in which both personality and 
society develop, the moral principles being identical with the unfolding 


experiences of communion, commitment and striving of the individual. 
From this viewpoint "scientific" ethics roots itself in psychological and 
sociological evidences for the evolution of moral ideas, values and sanctions. 
It consists in maintaining or fostering open ethical development of human 
beings in groups that mediate the movement from Reciprocity through 
Justice to Love and Sharing, and from Prudence through Loyalty to Reve- 
rence. It is phylogenetic, i.e. this development corresponds to the evolu- 
tionary direction of the human species itself, aiding its survival, continuity 
and advance, and fulfilling its unrealised potentialities. 

Man's choice of groups, the level of self and communion, the ethical 
principles of Reciprocity, Justice and Love and the virtues and ideals of 
Prudence, Loyalty and Reverence, which his divergent group connections 
involve, enter into the new, specifically human dimension of the evolutionary 
process. Ethics emerges from the individual's morale, communion and 
responsibility in the on-going group orientation that clarifies and articulates 
his moral attitudes, conscience and loyalties. It becomes empirical, 
and is provided with a dynamic conceptual frame-work by social science; 
the 'notions of the Interest-group, Community and Mankind, shifting 
with man's communion and social participation and guiding his rational 
behaviour in the changing social scene with its new articulation of human 
relations, attitudes and values. Thus does morality change its meaning with 
the transformation of group and individual attitudes and loyalties often 
without the individual being aware of it. 

The treatise on Science and Ethics, edited by Waddiugton sometime back, 
made out a strong case for the formulation of scientific principles in 
ethics that may be in accordance with human social evolution and at the 
same time show that universality in practice which has hitherto failed man- 
kind.* 1 This notable collaborative endeavour to reach empirical principles 
in man's ethical development in the broad perspective of his evolution 
has not been successful. The controversies and dilemmas that it has 
revealed are largely due to an inadequate appreciation of the different 
phases and dimensions of moral valuation. No attempt is made to reach 
scientific principles of morality based on the developmental processes in 
mind, groups and values in their successive orders or dimensions. 2 

Human social evolution is marked by the trend of man reaching greater 
individuation and freedom, more internal than external controls, and higher 
levels of unity and organisation embodied in values and morality, parallel 
with the increase in size and solidarity of basic human groups or associa- 
tions created and maintained largely by intrinsic, ideal and transcendent 
values, and culminating in the ideal of the open society of mankind-and- 
cosmos as a whole. 

1 See also Waddington : The Ethical Animal. 

1 My earlier book, The Dynamics of Morals (1950) essayed the task. 


Manklnd-as-a whole and World-Man as Moral 'Norms 

Mankind-as-a whole represents the most extensive human association 
governed by the highest ethical norm that the individual can realise viz. 
Love and Sharing grounded in Reverence for Living. The nation, the 
class, the family or any other social group are^by comparison inferior social 
and moral systems. It is a perversion of values when the morality of the 
family, class or nation supersedes or counteracts the morality of mankind- 
as-a whole. The devaluation of humanity is a confusion of moral standards 
or what Robert S. Hartman calls "the transposition of the moral and the 
legal." This occurs in a system of thought in which nations are treated 
as "powers" or physical entities and forces that are in equilibrium or in 
a vacuum in relation to other nations or "powers". The intrinsic supreme 
values of the individual as World Man and of Mankind-as-a Whole 
must be safeguarded in order that collectivities like nations, classes or 
other groups may not reduce mankind awareness, nor encourage the struggle 
between peoples and the mass slaughter of atomic warfare in the names 
of false fetishes loved or adored. As Niebuhr puts it, the crucial ethical 
problem of the present age is the and thesis,, between "moral man" and 
"immoral society". While states and "powers" become cunning, 
deceitful and immoral, the entire trend of evolution points the way 
towards mankind functioning as an organized moral whole. This will reduce 
and ultimately abolish the tremendous conflict between the intrinsic values 
of the human individual and of mankind, both considered as "wholes," 
and the instrumental values of groups, classes and nations the "tribalisms" 
which the human species has yet to outgrow in its psycho-social develop- 

The social sciences have now to define and focus the social, economic 
and political conditions under which moral progress is possible the advance 
from the principles of Prudence and Loyalty to those of Love and Sharing, 
rooted in Reverence and also the next steps in social integration the 
advance from Interest-groups, Communities, nations and blocs fo nations 
to Mankind-as-an Integrated and Organised Whole. These should also 
clarify amoral and anti-evolutionary forces, such as the diffusion of false 
myths of race and colour, the ignorance of the masses in respect of other 
cultures, the unbalance of world population and resources, the disruptive 
influence of technological culture and of class ideologies and tensions on 
the wholeness and balance of man's living, the loss of natural hierarchy of 
values and the shift from intrinsic to instrumental values. Imagination, 
empathy and insight as well as social foresight and judgment are all indis- 
pensable in the social sciences for the scrutiny of forces which create anti- 
social attitudes and disvalues and sustain and perpetuate segmented, closed, 
amoral or immoral groups and associations. Mankind-as-a whole is the 
highest ethical social grouping. Here man's communion is the deepest and 


most universal the basis of striving for, and achievement of, his supreme 
intrinsic values of truth, beauty and goodness. The organised realisation 
of the individual's highest values implies at once the profoundest depth of 
the personality and the most intense temporal equality and solidarity of 
mankind. Mankind-as-a whole, psychologically meaningful and ethically 
obligatory, includes and transcends man's earlier stages of evolution and 
now provides the basis of his further advance. 

Man's Involution, Trans-biological and Global 

All this entirely alters the modus operandi, dimension and perspective in 
human development. Man's development has become trans-biological 
and global, embodying ever fuller patterns of experience in an ever wider 
and more significant cosmos that he conceives. The grand pattern of the 
cosmos achieves its meanings, values and potentialities by reason of its 
higher and higher levels of unity and order that man can reach. The 
metaphysical principles of unity or order ultimately are the laws of human 
development. This is because man's inner nature itself is unity or 

The fundamental "general law" of human evolution stresses the multi- 
dimensionality of human evolution and values as well as the natural unity 
of the value-system. Each advance in human evolution is an advance of 
all dimensions or orders of adjustment, of the totality of values.. 1 Man, 
who is unique in evolution and master over all other animals, is, however, too 
young as species to have fuUy adjusted his psycho-social environment within a 
span of only sixty centuries to his hereditary nature and his potentialities. 
On the one hand, his highly developed cerebral cortex and capacity for 
symbolic interpretation and communication make him susceptible to choice 
of disvalues, moral backsliding, and repetitive egoistic and aggressive 
behaviour and to chronic ego insecurity, anger and hate. These reduce his 
social though not his biological fitness. On the other hand, his neo-cortex 
functions somewhat separately, due probably to his prolonged development 
and delayed maturity, from the more primitive archipallial visceral centres, 
leading to inadequate cortical control and deployment of his maladaptive 
sexuality, greed, rage and aggressiveness. In his bio-psychology he has, 
indeed, shown an uneven, disharmonious and lop-sided development that 
endangers his stability and threatens his survival. Homo sapiens is today 
Homo .instabilis driven by aggressiveness, fear and anxiety. It is the 
profound imbalance of ideas, techniques and values in the different dimensions 
of his adaptation that makes man's biological future uncertain, even 

Instability of Man 

Man as species has yet to establish a stable, harmonious mode of social 

l Hart: Treatise on Valuts, p. 82, 


living approximate to his normal instinctive behaviour and to his species 
survival. No adequate standards of living, health and nutrition can be 
maintained in a field of continual ecological depletion or denudation of 
resources brought about by his improvidence and greed. His higher needs 
and values are left unfulfilled and his potentialities nipped in the bud where 
his prolific breeding over-reaches the means of subsistence and brings all- 
round misery and disease. No society can foster sociability and goodwill, 
nor stimulate maternal love, tenderness and solicitude where the family 
which is basic for the fulfilment of his heightened instinctual needs and 
development of interpersonal relations is disrupted, or where the child is 
deprived of the mother's nursing and care from birth. Intelligence and 
aptitudes cannot thrive where man's choice and responsibility are conti- 
nually invaded by the State or he is exposed to mass propaganda and con- 
ditioning to truths and values regarded by the State or any elite group 
as absolute and sacrosanct. Neither morals nor beauty can thrive where 
habitations are ugly and overcrowded, and where chronic class conflicts 
and wars lead to the complete lapse of the intrinsicalities of life. Beauty, 
love and goodness can expand only in a social world where each individual, 
irrespective of the group to which he belongs, can make the most of his 
capacities and potentialities; where his duties and loyalties extend beyond 
the family and the class to the nations, and to an interdependent world 
community; and where the fine arts, myth and religion instil altruism, charity 
and compassion as nobler impulsions than reciprocity, equity and justice. 

Biologically speaking, the known hereditary nature of man is improv- 
ing, though exceedingly slowly, showing new qualities and patterns of 
experience. But the plasticity, inventiveness or creativeness of his mind 
and rational behaviour that have won his biological dominance must be 
used in a manner most advantageous socially, rather than for endangering 
or destroying himself and his civilization. It is then only that his behaviour, 
intelligent, imaginative and altruistic, can be biologically appropriate, and 
ensure and maintain his evolutionary advance. It is possible that his in- 
tellectual acumen, synthetic intuition, aesthetic sensibility, mystical self- 
transcendence, spiritual love, altruism, compassion and reverence for life 
can improve in the future beyond the present higher levels. The widening 
of his social awareness, feeling and imagination would be of great evolu- 
tionary significane although the current negative, "low-ceiling, jungle 
psychology", as Abraham Marlow labels it, does not show any interest in 
this. Similarly telepathic knowledge and feeling and mystical extra-sensory 
and transcendental experiences that already play a considerable part 
in human life can also develop and enable man to extend the horizons of 
his experience. 

Cosmic Man, Mind and Culture 

In the deeper strata of memory and consciousness man is one with 


fellow-man, and his creative imagination builds up mankind-awareness and 
feeling and ideal of the most extensive human community; 1 But for most 
individuals the deeper, more extensive and transcending self lies dormant 
and inactive. Even the commonwealth of mankind remains a mere dream. 
The evolution of life and mind is blocked for the majority of persons. 
The conepts of Life, Mind and Values ought to be enlarged so as to in- 
clude meta-biological and meta-psychological dimensions in order to under- 
stand the nature of the Cosmic Man and the Cosmic Mind. These embody 
themselves in a variety of civilizations and social systems that have their 
own individuality or distinctiveness, and yet contribute towards a mankind 
conception and imagination. The human mind ever reaches out towards 
larger and larger wholes, and Mankind-as a Whole has emerged in this 
age as an organised integrative moral force. 

What James Harvey Robinson observed is true : "One can invent 
more and more mind as we go along, 'now that we have the trick'." There 
is nothing fixed and definitive about the biological nature of man; the 
human mind constantly creates something which is qualitatively richer, 
deeper and broader and which constitutes the ever-widening basis for his 
advance. A steadily enlarging circle of psychologists, following the lead 
of Freud, Jung and other psycho-analysts, is convinced that at the deeper 
level of the mind mankind is perceived and felt as a whole, though a will 
toward the solidarity of the global community is far from being manifest. 
To the extent man cannot move from the immediate, specific and instru- 
mental to the transcendent, universal and intrinsic attitudes and values, 
and is circumscribed in his habits, devotions and loyalties, he sins against 
his own self and Mankind-as-a Whole which is found in its unity in each 

Human values and personalities show new qualities and modes of 
experience, circumscribed as these are by genotypes, historical traditions 
and regional cultures that keep them within certain patterns. Yet man 
has produced a world tradition. Among the animals he has been the most 
widely travelled, and the most successfully acclimatised creature; by his 
migration, trade, colonisation, conquest and adventure he has created a 
global culture a unified system of science, knowledge and morality. 
Human values at their highest produce and maintain a well-balanced, in- 
tegrated, universal, transcendent self and a unified ethical world community. 
On the one hand, the inner growth and maturation of personality rest 
on the creation of more and new intrinsic values that can be shared 
by larger and larger sections of society and humanity. On the other hand, 
it is the intrinsic and universal values of a particular society and culture 
that are selected and prized and become positively significant in the broad 
march of human progress. These are shared by all mankind. Their 

1 Bucke : Cosmic Consciousness. 


enhancement is conducive to global unity as well as to the enrich- 
ment of the common pool of truths and values for mankind the 
global cultural inheritance. The evolution of Homo sapiens can now be 
accelerated mainly by an impingement, interpenetration and fusion of 
cultures and traditions the supersession of cultural isolation by a global 
tradition. Conversely, the trends of evolution in the biological sector 
can never intermingle nor fuse. The cumulative global tradition increas- 
ingly operates as a filter, screen or sieve of the selection of ideas, values 
and institutions in the shared experience of men of different races and 
environments, replacing natural selection by the new and more efficient 
method of conscious selection on a world scale. Many historic civilizations 
disappeared completely because these were confined to small localities and 
regions, and to very limited and hence vulnerable sections of the popula- 

The Dialectic of Hthlca! Norms in Human Involution 

We may now briefly review the ethical norms and mechanisms of 
human social evolution that increasingly replace the goals and mechanisms 
of biological evolution and natural selection. An integrated world indi- 
vidual and a unified wotld system are the goals of conscious cultural selec- 
tion of the human species on which rest its survival and progress. The 
selective systems which yield these goals are three, viz. first, the structure 
of human personality; second, the pattern of values; and, third, the organi- 
sation of man's unlimited, external social heritage the world tradition. 
(Column I of Table on P. 187). 

The processes of dynamic reciprocal adjustment between the infinitely 
open, forward-oriented selective systems are rational and purposive, rather 
than unconscious and instinctive. Human social evolution works its 
changes on person, values and culture silently, not so much by coercion, 
violence and war as by communication and understanding, leading towards 
greater richness, comprehensiveness and harmony than the forms or species 
gradually displaced as misfits for human adaptation. 

We have dealt with these in the previous chapters, but these have 
never been brought out in a table where we can scrutinise them side by 
side. Personality, values and world system evolve in their togetherness 
and reciprocal interchange, each. through its own polarity or opposition 
of modes of chanclling expression (See Column II of Table on P. 187). 
Man in his personality, his system of values and his pattern of world tradi- 
tion form unities of opposite tendencies that are all balanced and synthe- 
sized on a higher dimension than on the dimension of the . opposites, con- 
flicts and dichotomies. All of them have in common a holistic, harmonis- 
ing character, ever ascending to a higher dimension. The goals of the 
complex, inter-dependent cultural processes of selection are, first, the gradual 
evolution of human nature and potentials and emergence of a unified, 


transcendent world personality; second, the evolution and scaling of values 
so as to establish the natural hegemony of the intrinsic, universal and trans- 
cendent values; and third, the multilinear autonomous evolution of peoples 
and cultures within the unity of world science, knowledge and morality. 
(Column III of Table on P. 187) 

The theory of "transactions*', which we have adopted throughout, 
following the mode of thinking of Dew^y and Bentley, stresses that there 
is a meaningful and evaluative congruence between the selective action 
of the personal, normative and cultural situations and systems. The per- 
sonality triats and attributes, the scale and orientation of dominant values, 
and the status-power system in society derived from it, and the cultural 
pattern saturated by, and in its turn replenishing, the pool of world tradi- 
tions and techniques, all mutuilly advpt themselves in the course of social 
evolution to the survival values of species. The evaluated objects of cul- 
tural selection are Personality Values and the Cultural Pattern in their 
dynamic interdependence and intcrpenjtration. 

The mzjor schools of sociology and , psychology, as they import the 
theory of natural selection, treat human behaviour as approximating to a 
pattern of action and reaction of equal, simple and homogeneous forces, 
as in a "closed system" of classical physics. When human mind, com- 
munication and values come into the picture, we have to introduce into the 
complex pattern of natural selection the concepts of circular, reciprocal, 
cumulative and spiral interactions or "transactions," ?*s Dewey and Bentley 
call these, as well as "feed-back" mechanisms of conforming habits and 
values that are learned and transmitted, directing the adjustments of human 
organisms to each other and to the environment. New principles of equili- 
brium and integration, purposive social selection and individual learning 
largely replace natural selection. The former become the silent, imper- 
ceptible vehicles for the norm of natural selection. In other words, the 
values of life, as these are embodied in the preferences of the individual 
and internalised in the structure of his personality as conscience and faith, 
and, again as selected, systematised and transmitted as the institutional 
pattern and the moral tradition, fuse with survival values. Natural selec- 
tion cannot be eschewed from any form of life, but is operative on men and 
peoples via the orientation of their dominant urges and motivations, the 
scaling of their goals and values, the moral order and the set-up of institu- 
tions and culture. The goals and directives of human social evolution, 
no doubt, comprise the fulfilment of the intrinsic and transcendent values 
of life emerging from the dynamic interchange between Person, Values and 
World, but these hide in their bosom the bloodshed, pain and suffering of 
organic evolution. 

Man dwells in several realms, the biological, the social and the trans- 
cendent, and his career is the meeting-ground of the forces of organic evo- 
lution and natural selection from below, and the intrinsic and transcendent 


I8 5 

values and satisfactions from above that merge and interpenetrate. In all 
dimensions of human adaptation, biological, social and ideal, there is a 
movement from instrumental and specific to intrinsic and transcendent 
values. In human evolution, the gentle, socially conditioned and directed 
value experience becomes the locus of the impacts of natural and cultural 
selection and survival fused together. Behind the bio-psychological 
demands of the wholeness and transcendence of self, the gradation of 
human needs and values and the moral imperatives of fulfilment of human 
potentialities and solidarity of the human species are the sanctions of the 
norm of natural selection. 

The survival of man both as individual and as species depends in the 
future on a system of ideal motivations and values of pan-human moral 
obligations and cooperative global endeavours that can impel him towards 
universal personnlity, universal values and universal community. The 
integration of world personality, universal values and intelligently controlled 
global society will be the result of dialectical processes of opposition and 
fusion of contradictory and complementary truths and values (Column II of 
Table on P. 187). Biologists, social scientists and metaphysicians equally agree 
about the dialectical structure of existence and experience. Biologists move 
on the level of the polarities of life and environment. Psychologists and social 
scientists stress the balancing and harmonising of the polarities of impulse 
and reason, conscious and unconscious, instrumental and intrinsic values, 
and their balancing in an integrative value system. Metaphysicians assert 
the dialectical antithesis of all truths and values fused in the ultimate reality. 

The dialectic of human social evolution is indicated below : 









Self-De termi natio a 
Instrumental and 
Specific Values 
Ethnocentrism and 

Intrinsic and Trans- 
cendent Values 
World Community 

Unified Self 
Natural Value 

The above processes are akin to the bi-polar mechanisms in organic 
evolution which J.B.S. Haldane has distinguished. 1 







Selection of the 
Fittest Individuals 

Consequent Loss of 
Fitness in the Species 

Survival of those Species 
Showing Little Intra- 
specific competition. 

1 Science and Society, 1937. 


Northrop considers the Hegelian and Darwinian concepts of evolution 
as altogether antithetical and conflicting. According to him, Hegelian 
evolution, involving thesis and antithesis and hence called "dialectical," 
is dramatic and revolutionary; while Darwinian evolution, involving the 
dynamics of genetical mutations or chance variations, is "gradualistic." 1 
This is an unwarranted simplification. The Hegelian theory of dialectical 
evolution is a metaphysical approach to nature and to history, and its uni- 
versal logic that refers to principles and propositions and not to physical 
facts and forces can, by no means, be assumed as postulating struggle and 
force. It is clear that the Hegelian view of polarity or antithesis, and of 
the sequence of thesis, antithesis and synthesis underlying the logic of 
development is applicable equally to the phenomena of life, consciousness, 
and society. Organic and human social evolution fully affirms the sequence of 
antithetical goals or theses working towards a final synthesis. It is only 
the Marxist realistic epistemology, with its substitution of materialistic 
for idealistic forces, and its importation of the logical supremacy of the 
external material objects and relations into the Hegelian framework of 
thought that postulate conflict and revolution in the theory of the dialectical 
march of society. The logic of dialectical evolutionism is amoral. It 
reveals the progress of man and society towards higher truths and values, 
human relations and social arrangements through the unity and harmony 
of polar principles and tendencies. Man and society, if these elevate one 
of the great polarities of life as absolute and complete and reduce the other 
merely to derivative and adventitious, take a self-defeating and immoral 
course, inhibiting the development of new values and a new moral pattern. 

In the on-going course of evolution in man's adaptive life-zone, new 
types of personality, new patterns of values, new moral orders and new 
world systems emerge through the appreciation of polar interrelations 
and ultimate unity, wholeness and transcendence. Man is constantly modi- 
fying his dispositions, and showing new moral relations, adjustibilities and 
potentialities. With new "species" of men, evolution constantly goes on. 
The cosmos constantly evolves with its new species of societies of societies 
and new integrations and coordinations of values. Values and evolution 
are rooted in the ultimate ground of Being whence are derived conscience 
and the categorical imperative. In Being are finally resolved all contradic- 
tions of human facts and values^ of impulse and conscience, and of exis- 
tence and transcendence. Man's mature, creative conscience and the moral 
law are the only guides to ever deeper and higher dimensions of unity 
within Being, between beings and with the cosmos. Ultimately Being, 
values and cosmos become one, and evolution in its various phases or 
dimensions becomes indivisible. 

1 Philosophical Anthropology and Practical Politics, pp. 143-145. 






Selective System Dialectic of Ethical Nor MS 


Norms of 
Social Evolution 

i Structure of 

2 Pattern 


3 World 

Freedom and Uniqueness 
v. Universality and Im- 

Intrinsic, Universal and 
Transcendent Values v. 
Instrumental, Specific and 
Existential Values 

Mankind-as-a Whole v. 
Uniqueness of Specific 
Cultural pattern 

Integrated Personality of 
World-Man or Real 

Natural Hegemony of In- 
trinsic, Universal and 
Transcendent Values 

Multilinear Cultural Evo- 
lution within the Unity 
of World Culture 



The F mergence of a Cosmic Mind 

Man injects his mind, personality and values into every dimension 
and sphere of his evolution. Evolution in the past did not always produce 
higher and superior animals, nor even those that were closely fitted to the 
environment. But the evolutionary process which created the human 
animal marked a true advance. Biologically speaking, evolution is 
no longer restricted to certain psrts of the animal body, nor to the in- 
tractable, mutated body, nor, agiin, to the limited and specific possibilities 
that confront the animal body in its determinate environment. It now 
comprehends not only the whole body but also the whole mind as well as 
the personality, values and cosmos. 

Man's larger, more complex and more sensitive brain and mind, as 
these have evolved for the last million years, may lead in the future to fresh 
man-and-cosmos interchanges and interpcnetrations, to new human illumi- 
nations, appreciations and dedications far beyond anything imaginable at 
present. In so far as his self and values instead of being too narrow, 
fearsome and possessive become daring, open and cosmic, and develop 
transcending qualities independent of the life-situations, which are charac- 
teristic of all evolutionary advance, he becomes a complete man and all of the 
human species from the beginning to the present time. The self-transcend- 
ing mind of each individual has its opportunity to make a great deal out of 
human potentialities, to magnify his humanness, and take a forward step 
in human evolution, and in this it is aided by society, values and civilization. 

Tbs Significance of MM'S Costnic Adventure 

Evolution is now an open venture the outcome of transcending 
mind, meanings and values and the most general and unlimited possibilities 
of existence correlated with the full range of human mental capacities and 
promises. Personality, values and potentialities embrace every level and 
sphere of man's being the sweep and sensitivity of brain and consciousness, 
the "propriate" or central striving and transcendence of self, and the goals, 
purposes and possibilities of all relations and affairs of life, biological, social 
and cosmic or transcendent. Behind human evolution are now these all- 
comprehensive forms and patterns of the human mind, the unbounded 
meanings, values and potentialities of the self-and-cosmos which control 
man from beyond, and change the pace, dimensions and boundaries of his 
development, even his very nature. 


Whitehead has aptly remarked : "Human life is driven forward by its 
dim apprehension of notions too general for its existing language." Man's 
insight into the order and harmony of the cosmos, his appreciation of beauty, 
his identity-feeling or empathy, compassion and ecstasy and his conscience, 
faith and hope are marvellous qualities and capacities whose mechanisms 
and processes as yet elude the psychological sciences. Among other human 
talents and capacities these can neither be expressed adequately in words, 
nor defined by understanding and analysis. Yet it is these which determine 
the worth and dignity of human life and the goal and direction of human 
evolution. As man's brain through the course of millennia of growth 
gains a certain size, intricacy and sensitiveness, his mind reaches cosmic 
dimension and sweep. His transcendent, cosmic mind identifies itself with 
Life, Wisdom and Beauty that are acknowledged by him as the vital elan 
of the evolutionary process, and of his own human destiny. What are 
dim outlines and faint glimpses grow into radiant, sharp and steady illumi- 
nation, and shape, through human faith, conscience and freedom the comp- 
plete expression of the destiny of mankind and cosmos. 

The Infinitely Open, Creative Expressions of Mind 

Man's consciousness and understanding of his own transcending, cosmic 
mind and destiny are yet inchoate, imperfect and inadequate. Yet in the 
twentieth century he has made appreciable progress in this through the 
application of the scientific and reflective spirit to the infinitely open, crea- 
tive expressions of his life, consciousness and values previously unfore- 
seen. The biologist Berrill observes : "As our brains have grown, so has 
the power of reason and with it all have come these strange new lights we 
call the spirit. And by this token if our brains continue to evolve in the 
same general manner as they have in the past, the new capacity for under- 
standing and new illuminations may flood in far beyond anything we can 
at present conceive. The essential human qualities of the mind are already 
new in kind. Those that would appear might be just as strange and far 
more wonderful, while those which are here or immanent may blossom 
beyond recognition. If sucrris our destiny, even as a remote possibility, 
we should never lose sight of it, for as a star to steer by it beckons brightly." 1 

The psychologist Gardner Murphy has also recently stressed the unpre- 
dictable self-fulfilment that lies before man through catching and making the 
most of the potentialities which cosmic structure permits. He observes : 
"He can fulfil himself, of course, by the principle of emergence by com- 
plicating nature far more than it has even been complicated before. Just 
as the brain of man, for example, is an elaboration of bio-chemical and 
neuro-physiological realities to a degree very much more intricate than is 
known to exist anywhere else in the universe, so it is entirely possible that 

1 Man's Emerging Mind, pp. 292, 296, 


man's psychological and social nature may represent refinements and elabo- 
rations, cosmic potentialities, cosmic trends as yet unparalleled elsewhere 
in the known universe." 1 Similarly the scientist Oppenheimer thus unfolds 
the vistas of human advance in the twentieth century : "This is, inevitably 
and increasingly, an open and, inevitably and increasingly, an eclectic world. 
Our histories and traditions the very means of interpreting life are both 
bonds and barriers among us. Our knowledge separates as well as it unites; 
our orders disintegrate as well as bind; our art brings us together and sets 
us apart. Never before today has the integrity of the intimate, the detailed, 
the true art, the integrity of craftsmanship and the preservation of the 
familiar, of the humorous and the beautiful stood in the more massive 
contrast to the vastness of life, the greatness of the globe, the otherness 
of people, the otherness of ways and the all-encompassing dark. This 
balance, this perpetual, precarious, impossible balance between the infinitely 
open and the intimate this time our twentieth century has been long in 
coming, but it has come. It is, I think, for us and our children, the only 
way. 2 

Man's Open, Cosmic Mind and Manklnd-as-a Whole 

Instinctively and unconsciously man perpetually seeks and maintains 
a biological and mental integrity, balance and creativeness in his cosmos. 
Even in dream and reverie he creates an order and harmony out of the 
chaos and confusion of sensory instinctual impressions, desires and feelings, 
and a stable meaning, attitude and value out of the fluctuating sequential 
mass of experiences and behaviour. Beauty is born of the harmonious 
balancing of his organic and mental rhythms of desire and satisfaction, 
and resistance and mastery, and the ambivalences and conflicts of love and 
hate> creation and destruction. The apprehension of beauty establishes 
order and unity of all the given elements of the cosmos and his inner life 
by their integration and harmony. Beauty is indeed the authentic reflection 
in the ideal dimension of his psycho-biological integration, balance and 
homeostasis. His mind, personality and values as these wander from the 
immediate life-situation into space and time, weave enduring patterns of 
harmony and beauty in which the various happenings and experiences, 
past, present and anticipatory, and the various dimensions of meaning, 
experience and value, biological, social and transcendent, are fused to- 
gether. There is also another kind of harmonious fusion, another dimen- 
sion of expression and recognition of beauty, the integration of each man's 
own meaning, experience and value with those of fellowmen for purposive 
adaptation, control and direction in the most extensive and open community 
that he can imagine and inhabit. Due to human memory, imagination, 

1 Sec Human Potentialities^ p. 300. 

1 Prospects in the Arts and Sciences t Lecture at the Columbia University Bi-centennial 
Celebration, 1955. 


contemplation, aesthetic appreciation and speculative anticipation, human 
life-situation and adaptation constantly enlarge and deepen themselves in 
space and time and in dimensions of experience. Man's evolutionary 
advance implies a push forward in several dimensions of time and ex- 
perience. All that has occurred, that occurs and that will occur, and that 
at the biological, social and transcendent levels of adjustment, obtain here- 
in their full meaning and value. His progress is progress in both his inner 
and outer harmony, in his orderly adjustment and behaviour, as individual, 
as society and as mankind, and, finally, in his harmonious realisation as 
the historical individual of the unity and the continuity of the entire herit- 
age of civilization. The integration, enrichment and rcfin|;ment of human 
values and personalities, and of specific societies and civilizations embody 
themselves in cosmic mind and global culture that are the dual end-results 
of the cosmic evolutionary process. Human evolution, beyond-biological 
in its dimension and global in its range and scope^ is measured by the 
development of open, cosmic mind in every society and nation, and its full 
creative expressions in infinitely open, transcending patterns of beauty, 
goodness and compassion and the integration and functioning of mankind- 
as-a whole, ethically and spiritually. Only a total advance of cosmic 
meanings, values and experiences can enlist his full powers and unrealised 
potentialities : all as integral to the transcendent, cosmic modes of his 
existence and transformation. 
The Rio-Philosophical Theory of Open Involution 

In every field it is not limited, specific, fragmentary or instrumental, 
but intrinsic, universal and cosmic notions and values that lead to his fresh 
evolutionary advance through new moral relations, new personality struc- 
tures, new unifications of cosmic mind. Open, transcendent evolution is 
the way of realisation of new potentialities of, and for the self-transcending 
human nature. For human evolution we have, therefore, preferred the 
phrase "transcendent" evolution to "emergent" evolution. 

Contemporary thought, concerning the phenomena of the universe and 
man's relations to them, is being revolutionised by the philosophies of 
science and biology. Modern physics now tells us that the events of nature 
exist as a pattern in the human mind in which the present, past and future 
comprise a continuum. These are on-moving, having neither a beginning 
nor an end. The process or activity, physical and mental, is, in Whitehead's 
famous phrase, the actuality. The organism is no longer regarded as some- 
thing concrete with specific structure and organisation and with particular 
physical boundaries, but is a continuous pattern ever transforming itself 
in a four-dimensional universe. Space and time fuse themselves in the 
organism, in the human mind, personality and values, and in the cosmos 
as one all-comprehensive, transcendent whole. The individual merges in 
society, society merges in mankind-as-a whole, and mankind merges in 


cosmos-as-a whole, sequentially extending its horizons in space and time 
until life and organisation become one all-inclusive whole. Human evo- 
lution is an open episode, only a very recent open episode of the whole 
development of matter, life and mind in which the past is eternally present 
and the future is always immanent. Fund^mjntally this is the bio-philo- 
sophical theory of open, "transcend :nt" evolution. 

It is much more than a theory, for basically it is human mind's intuitive 
understanding and aesthetic appreciation of -the unity, continuity and trans- 
cendence of life in all its dimensions. It is the transcending quality of 
evolution of matter, energy and life which ever broadens it in space, and 
deepens and intensifies it in t : mc, so as to create in the human brain and 
mind the wholeness, beauty and transcendence of the cosmos. Not merely 
human knowledge and insight but also human love, appreciation and 
adventure are necessary for a representation, however, imperfect, of this 
on-going, majestic process of evolution, shaping the order, harmony and 
unity of the cosmos that are built into the human mind as truth, goodness 
and beauty. 

The Pre-0 retained Harmony of Cosmos and Man 

Leibniz conceives of the "pre-ordained harmony" of the cosmos which 
is also the stuff of the human brain and mind. Oppenheimer, speaking of 
the unsolved problems in nuclear physics, refers to the maze of findings that 
cannot be reduced to an orderly concept of the physical world. But he 
observes that "always in the past there has been au explanation of immense 
sweep and simplicity and in it vast detail has been comprehended as neces- 
sary. Do we have the faith that this is inevitably true of man and nature ? 
Do we have the confidence that we shall have the wit to discover it ? For 
some odd reason, the answer to both questions is, Yes." Unity, harmony 
and beauty are as much within the human person as in the cosmos. The 
process which focusses this before human consciousness is open, transcen- 
dent evolution. Evolution has no doubt, a cosmic, transcendent quality 
underlying the whole sequential pattern from the system of atoms and 
stars to galaxies, and from the system of cells and organisms to human 
bodies, minds and values. Consciousness recognises, sustains and cherishes 
as supreme beauty not any particular pattern but the universal, transcending, 
harmonising or patterning principle embodied in the eventuations of the 

Cosmic Mind and Values 

Beauty emerges in consciousness as awareness, as feeling and as creation 
of harmony or wholeness, which are but three aspects of the fundamen- 
tal essence of the cosmic that are abstracted separately for convenience 
by the human mind. Man's experience of beauty in "transcendent" evolu- 
tion not only enlarges his empirical veracity, but becomes the passion of 


his living in hope, love, goodness and compassion. The transcending 
attribute of cosmic evolution captures, moulds and directs his brain and 
mind, many of whose activities are, no doubt, essential for his survival, but 
many leaping to a higher dimension of experience can neither be foreseen, 
nor predicted, nor defined. Such is the amazing transformation of animal 
mind and values into Cosmic Mind and Values, achieved consciously in 
man's evolution and associated with his individual fulfilment, happiness 
and perfection. "Transcendent" evolution may be accepted as the art 
and religion of twentieth century man, refining and enriching the creative, 
forward-oriented and open aspect of his nature and strivings, liberating his 
mind and spirit from the pressures and compulsions of an all-engulfing 
social organisation, and the ego-centricity, greed and aggressiveness of his 
animal nature, and building up an open moral community unlimited in its 
range and depth. 

In contrast with the animal the modes of human self-actualisation and self- 
transcendence are pertinent not only to man but to mankind and cosmos-as-a 
whole. The key to transcendent human evolution is Cosmic Mind, Cosmic 
Purpose and Cosmic Will, man's obligation and adventure to perfect all that 
there is in the cosmos, to the stuff and substance of which he essentially be- 
longs. His creative, open, symbolising and evaluating mind fundamentally 
differs from the mind of the animal in that it always transcends the immediate 
given moment, environment and opportunities. As it matures in response to 
the wider and wider environment and its stimuli and promises, it evolves 
into the Cosmic Mind that transcends the conscious mind. The Cosmic 
Mind is the ideal of the highest possible human wholeness, harmony and 
beauty, the summum bonum which penetrates into the core of human nature. 
It is no vague fancy, but demands realisation giving a new status and dig- 
nity to human values, strivings and evolution. Through the farthest 
aspirations of harmony, beauty and goodness the Cosmic Mind approxi- 
mates in contents to the Reality, with which man identifies himself in 
various degrees according to his mental and spiritual trends and capacities 
the harmonious cosmic whole that he can grasp. 

Closed versus Open Evolution 

Encrusted and governed by the narrow loyalties of his family, class 
and nation, man, however, sins against evolving open life, mind and society. 
He then becomes the stupendous burden of the evolutionary process, 
struggling as he does with all his intelligence and skill to block and cir- 
cumscribe it. The life of the individual, integrated and deepened, and 
the life of the cosmic, broadened and intensified, are two facets of the 
same absolute adventure. Open, transcendent evolution reveals at once 
a steady improvement in the uniqueness, productiveness and expansiveness 
of all individuals and the ceaseless unification of the Cosmic Mind. The 
Bergsonian vision that the human mind transcends immediacy through its 


memory of the past and anticipation of the future, and is capable of orga- 
nising by a kind of integration the environing events and possibilities pre- 
sented to it> thereby undoing the dissipation demanded by the Second 
Law of Thermo-dynamics, reveals the true meaning and promise of cosmic 
evolution. As W. P. Montague puts it, "Nature in the course of evolu- 
tion is actually attaining a richer and more completely organised system 
of its energy in the realm of mentality. The day will come when science 
will supplement its many discoveries of the katabolic processes, which 
reveal the operation of the law of entropy, by a discovery of the essentially 
anabolic processes which are at present revealed only in the growth of 
individuals and only to their introspection. We should then have a second 
and greater volume of scientific revelation in which the Bergsonian philo- 
sophy would be demonstrated." 1 

The Cosmic Mind mirrors the meaning, purpose and direction of 
transcendent evolution. The evolution of life and the evolution of mind 
are identical the fruit of a Cosmic Imagination and Vision. The Cosmic 
Mind reveals a cumulative system of memories and ordering of the series 
of episodes of the past, experienced and evaluated together. Due to its 
capacity to build into itself an ever richer and more extensive organisation 
in constant interaction with the enlarging environment and its events and 
values, it keeps cosmic evolution always moving and striving in its un- 
ending venture. 

Man's Completion of the Cosmos 

Life and mind, as we see them in the cosmic evolutionary process, are 
full of backslidings, defeats and sufferings. On both, life and mind, is im- 
posed the limitation that their fulfilments rest on bafflements, miseries and 
despairs. Man having reached the summit of evolution cannot forget the 
anxieties and pains, defeats and miseries of a thousand humbler fellow- 
creatures that represent the price of his own survival and progress. His 
own mind, even as it apprehends the endless vistas of cosmic progress, is 
shot with conscious and unconscious anxieties, frustrations and disillusion- 
ments. The universe collects a vast, measureless pool of sweat, blood and 
tears of sentient creatures that suffer defeat, agony and death in the struggle 
for survival. Buddhism was right when it declared that in the universe of 
a single moment the tears of mankind gathered together would be larger 
and deeper than all the seas and oceans of the earth. Through endless 
misery and suffering cosmic evolution, however, registers a continuous 
improvement of dimensions, and patterns of systems that articulate into 
more complex wholes, richer organisations of life and more inclusive 
transcendences. Transcendent evolution completely reverses the natural 
trend towards the dissipation of energy. Inanimate Nature, in the course 

1 Great Visions of Pbi!osopJy t p. 470. 


of evolution, reaches a mote completely organised pattern of its energy in 
the realm of Life. This synthetic ordering, organising and completion of 
the parts with one another in the realm of Life gives us the patterns of 
Mind and Value, glimpses of Cosmic Imagination and Purpose regulating 
the entire on-going process. It is the Cosmic Mind which embodies itself 
in this universe in the supreme traditional unity of absolute, transcendent 
values, Truth, Beauty and Goodness. From the cosmic fancy have emerged 
endless possibilities of material and organic existence, some trivial, others 
significant, some inept, others efficient, some infertile, others teeming, some 
parasitical, ugly and horrible, others noble, self-transcending and angelic. 
Out of these possibilities, the patterns or organisations of life, behaviour, 
personality and values articulate themselves through the successive levels of 
matter, life and mind, and this is called Evolution. 
The Beauty of Evolution 

Evolution transcends itself because of the immanence in it of both past 
and future. In so doing it discovers and articulates harmony, balance, 
order and goodness from which the human mind sublimates, abstracts and 
generalises Beauty. The supreme Beauty of evolution lies in the latter's 
pledge for the future. The stability, harmony, wholeness and transcendence 
of the patterns, which, indeed, intimate the potentialities of evolution, are 
conditions of the creation and realisation of Beauty. 

Beauty is the stamp in the realm of organisms of stability and rhythm 
of their growth and orderly physiological processes and activities that 
express themselves in arrangements and combinations of lines, curves 
and colours, often having a biological significance and standing the tests 
of sifting and selection. There are artistic unity and harmony in the make- 
up and architecture of an orchid, a lotus, a shell, a coral-reef fish, a butter- 
fly, a peacock, a Bird of Paradise, a rattle-snake or a Royal Bengal tiger. 
Ugliness and horror are usually associated with the parasitic, the domesti- 
cated, the incomplete or embryonic and the diseased.* While man's un- 
conscious standards and norms of line and colour, sound and movement 
are derived from the successful and complete expressions of organic life, 
growth and maturation surrounding him, he himself is an artist in so far 
as he must unconsciously or deliberately achieve order and harmony in 
his own organic and affective life. 

Beauty is not a chance by-product of his evoluion, but the perennial 
and universal echo of his harmonious and integral internal and external 
adaptedness. It is a thoroughly integral body-and-mind feeling which is 
associated with essential, formative and transcendent patterns. This in- 
tegralness of his body-mind feeling in his sense of Beauty explains why 
the object of Beauty excites his reflective mind as well as the centres ruling 

1 Compare J. A. Thomson : Tht Sysfm of Antmal Nature, Vol. I, pp. 275-278. 


the viscera, inducing a diffused bodily rapture and resonance. Man's vis- 
ceral needs, the responsive thrill of his psycho-physical processes to the 
balance and rhythm of the cosmos, his emotional urges of love, creation and 
fullness, and his intellectual and metaphysical strivings after order and 
harmony are all involved in his sense of Beauty. In the course of human 
evolution Beauty emerges as the orientation and elaboration of human 
notions, feelings and values into the universal, transcendent dimension. 
These achieve the identification of the human being with all his complex 
organs^ tissues* skills and sensitivities with the structure and rhythms of 
the cosmos surrounding him. Beauty opens to man at his best something 
which reason and intellect cannot convey, but an empathic response to the 
harmony, wholeness and transcendence of cosmos and life. The human 
body and mind find these as expressions of basic trends in cosmos and in 
self, both belonging to the same stuff. 

Beauty is sensed and created by man not merely in the sublimations of 
his vision, sound and touch, but also in his meaningful behaviour and 
experiences, wherever the patterns and movements reveal attributes of 
wholeness and transcendence. These are the evolutionary goals or pur- 
poses sought by the human mind, investing the latter with the teleolo- 
gical and purposive character it manifests. 

Man fulfils his nature more and more as he discovers the basic structure 
and trends of the cosmos, and becomes a macrocosm in many fundamental 
respects. The supreme revelation of his deep affinities with the cosmos 
come primarily from the identification of his own meanings, values and 
purposes with those of society and of cosmos as the society of societies. 
"The universe/' as Whitehead says, "achieves its value by reason of its co- 
ordination into societies of societies. Also all of these societies presup- 
pose the circumambient space of social physical activity." For the finite 
mind of man, society is the most complete, yet self-transcending epitome 
and model of value-creation and value experience. Man who is begotten 
by society, internalises society in his mind and heart. He perceives its 
ubiquitous presence in the cosmos in all its dimensions, and projects into 
the latter all the transcending values that society creates, deepens and ex- 
pands for him values not possible for him to experience outside society. 
Because of society which makes possible all beauties, truths, goodnesses, 
harmonies and sublimities of life that, otherwise, cannot exist, the universe 
becomes saturated with patterns, linkages, connections and values. 

"Beauty is truth, truth beauty," exclaims Keats. But Whitehead's is 
a surer judgment, viz., Beauty is a wider and more fundamental notion 
than Truth. The teleology of the universe, according to him, is directed 
to the production of Beauty. Beauty is self-justifying; while Truth derives 
its justification from its service to Beauty; the promotion of Beauty of feeling 
and goodness is a qualification belonging to the constitution of Reality, 


the real world being good when it is beautiful. 1 Man's surrender to Beauty 
is his affirmation of the universal ordering, harmonising and transcending 

trends of cosmos, life and mind, and acknowledged by him in his own 

The Sense of Beauty as Unity, Sublimity and Compassion 

The human body, brain and mind being integral parts of the cos- 
mos as any atom and star, crystal and galaxy, the universal transcendent 
attribute of evolution is woven into their fabric. Beauty is apprehended 
both as basic, self-justifying feeling and creation within man, and recognized 
and appreciated without in life, society and cosmos. It is acknowledged 
when philosophical or scientific speculation envisages an orderly, indivisible, 
simplified plan of the cosmos, and this is called Unity, Harmony or Truth. 
It is perceived when the imponderable rhythm of poetry and music, paint- 
ing and sculpture, the secret influence of a living Master (Avatara or Guru), 
the impact of a sacred formula (mantra) and method of synthesis, and the 
dialectical march of detached, elevated contemplation bring to a halt the 
ebb and flow of consciousness, and this is called Sublimity. It is realised 
when love transcending the narrow boundaries of two persons spills into 
the heart of humanity at large, and this is called Compassion or Reverence. 
The sense of Beauty gives man direct access to Reality with immediacy of 
experience in each case, whether as Unity, or as Sublimity, or as Compassion. 
As Kant says, "Beauty arouses and enhances man's whole psychic life, 
his emotions, conations and cognitions, in a harmonious integrated way." 
Man who is the handiwork of God and made in His image becomes at the 
same time the Divine artist through his contemplation and realisation of 
the cosmos-as-a whole. The unfolded universe is the reflection of the 
Divine artist. The Indian sage Sankaracharya uses the following beautiful 
metaphor : "On the vast canvas of the self the picture of the manifold 
worlds is painted by the self itself and that supreme Self itself takes delight 
in witnessing it." 

The experiences of Beauty, Unity, Compassion and Sublimity are found 
fused together, generating the same kind of transcending emotions and 
sentiments of self-competence, joy, charity and hope with similar kinds 
of kinesthetic and organic changes. In external nature orderliness, whole- 
ness and harmony are embodied in rhythm. In man order and harmony 
are secured and acknowledged by the inclusive and integral experiences 
of Beauty, Wholeness and Compassion or by the experiences of exclusion, 
negation and withdrawal as in the sense of Sublimity. Santayana says that 
the pleasures of Sublimity or Unity achieved by exclusion, opposition and 
isolation are cold, imperious and keen, but the pleasures of Beauty or Unity 
by inclusion are warm, passive and pervasive. 2 Beauty always more than 

1 Whitehead : Adventurts of Ideas y pp. 341-345. 
Tfa Sense of Btauty. 


morality speaks through solicitude, compassion and reverence over infinite, 
ever-receding reaches of human understanding, appreciation and care. It 
is the uniqueness of human imagination to embrace the whole cosmos 
in its vision of unity, harmony and beauty, and to extend and intensify 
unlimitedly the sweep of its love, solicitude and compassion. 

Man can neither define nor prove Beauty, but imagines, feels and lives 
it as he discovers unlimited stretches of unity, and experiences immeasur- 
able ranges of love and compassion. He languishes and dies wherever he 
hinders and kills Beauty. He leaps towards all his potentialities as he 
creates Beauty wherever he can, and thereby also enriches society, mankind 
and cosmos. 
Human Imagination, Feeling and Purpose in Evolution 

This marvellous and strange cosmos with its vast galaxies and its 
microscopic universes of neutrons and protons in the physical world* its 
infinite disasters and mute agonies of creatures that have gone to the wall 
in the biological world, and man's recurrent defeats and triumphs in the 
psycho-social world becomes essentially beautiful, meaningful and worth while 
for him as he can transcend himself, acknowledging and realising the supreme 
values of the transcendent quality within himself and without in all of 
nature. Then can he even seek fellowship and participation with God 
in the creation and transformation of the cosmos. How much compas- 
sion is breathed by these lines from Darwin : "If we choose to let conjec- 
ture run wild, then animals, our fellow-brethren in pain, disease, suffering 
and famine our slaves in the most laborious works, our companions in 
our amusements they may partake of our origin in one common ancestor 
we may be all melted together." 1 Thomas Hardy also makes the following 
noble observation : "And looking down the future these few hold fast to 
the same : that whether the human kindred animal races survive till the 
exhaustion or destruction of the globe or whether these races perish and 
are succeeded by others before that conclusion comes, pain to all upon it, 
tongued or dumb, shall be kept down to a minimum by loving kindness, 
operating through scientific knowledge, and actuated by the modicum of 
free will conjecturally possessed by organic life when the mighty necessitating 
forces unconscious or other that have "the balancing of the clouds," 
happen to be in equilibrium, which may or may not be often." 2 

Man's transcendent aspirations acquire the sense of creating some- 
thing in the cosmos that but for them simply cannot exist. He who is 
finite and time-bound dares to become infinite and universal, a co-partner 
with God in the process of creation. The evolution of the cosmos reveals 
a steady increase of participation of creatures in the impulse and will of 
the Creator. Animal life is the laboratory in which Nature has experimented 

1 Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Vol. 2, p. 6. 
1 Aplogy. 


for ushering in the symbolising, evaluating and transcending creature 
man. Human life has now become the laboratory in which Nature is 
experimenting for the emergence of cosmic mind and values that make 
man God's participant in the world-process. His imagination and purpose 
come to identify themselves with Cosmic Imagination and Purpose. The 
silent fear, anxiety and bewilderment of the evolutionary process, the trial 
and agony of the vanquished and defeated can then be overborne by the 
joy and hope of Beauty and Goodness, finite man's nearest approach to 
Being. In such contemplation of the evolutionary process with its eternal 
possibilities of both values and disvalues that coexist in Being, his mood 
is chastened. In Being there are contrarieties, though these do not belong 
to Being, and hence the universe happens to be so constituted that fulfil- 
ment and defeat, joy and suffering, goodness and evil alternate with one 

In the phraseology of the Vedanta evil and suffering, defeat and igno- 
rance are Maya which is the inscrutable Sakti of the Brahman. Maya or 
relativity represents the possibility for Being of not being. If evil, suf- 
fering and discord be excluded from possibility, Being would not be Being. 
Cosmic evolution is a consequence of the infinitude of Being. Like Maya 
it is without beginning or end, and displays the alternation of good and 
evil, actualisation and retrogression. The disharmonies, discords and 
disvalues of life need to be harmonised through the unceasing process of 
evolution. The process of cosmic evolution ultimately eliminates that 
in Being which is not being. Is this not strikingly analogous with the 
ancient Indian concept of God Siva as the Lord of Dance, who dances in 
the universe and in the minds of man, and whose footfalls are the alterna- 
tions of creation and destruction, anabolism and katabolism, goodness and 
evil, grimness and hope, advance and regression ? 

Modern value theory in the West is beset by the harsh dualisms of 
ob j ective-sub j ecti ve, absolute-relative and coercive-individualistic. The 
dilemmas can be resolved only by an exploration of the continuity between 
man and universe, the social order and the cosmic order, and relating the 
value doctrine to a new metaphysic of Being and Becoming that is less 
anthropomorphic and society-centred, and more universalist and more 
cosmic. As Charles Hartshorne observes : "The only way to avoid a 
certainly false, purely self-interest theory of motivation, and at the same 
time do justice to the principle that value lies in concrete individual 
satisfaction, not in mere collection, is to recognise a superhuman 
mind. If this includes the sum of being, if it be the cosmic mind, then 
the problem is solved, since such a mind would indeed find satisfaction 
in the satisfaction of all, for all would be integral parts of its own body, 
whose health would be inseparable from the prevailing health of its own 
parts." Man through his identification with Cosmic Mind finds the evolu- 


tionary process shot through with enlarging, transcendent meaning and 
purpose. These become his own meaning and purpose. He takes charge 
of the future evolutionary advance and makes sacrifices unimagined in his 
life-history in the past the fruits of his Cosmic Feeling and Imagination. 
The cosmos is yet to reach complete harmony and perfection : it is yet 
replete with discord and evil, untruth and ugliness. Only man's self- 
transcending, goodness and compassion, truth and beauty can achieve the 
richest possible harmony and perfection of the cosmos in the future. The 
creation and realisation of his transcendent values alone make the cosmos 


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Adaptation, human, to way of 
living in the grass lands, 63-66, 
climate and food, 44-45; and 
natural selection, 45-48; counter- 
ing bio-social norms in civiliza- 
tions, 118-120. 

Adler, R, 20. 

Age, of Conflict and Anxiety, 120, 

Ager, H. G., 39. 

Aggression, versus love and care in 
human evolution and behavi- 
our, 62, 64, 65, 85, 88-90, 96, 
97; man's excessive endow- 
ment with, 92, 126; inadequate 
mechanisms of control of, 152 

Agriculture, and ecology, 47-50, 

50-52, 54-55. 

Allport^ F.H., 41. 

Allport, G.W., 5, 7, 151- 

Animal societies, 98-100; their 
systems of communication, 100- 
102, 105-106; their value ex- 
periences, 107-108; their con- 
trasted genetic development of 
social behaviour, 111-112. 

Anshen, R.N., 26, 30. 

Apes, and men, resemblances and 
differences in evolution, 62, 63, 

%> 7o, 75-77, 79' 82 > 95-9 6 
Ashby, 35, 39. 

Bacon, F., 151. 

Bary-sphere, 21. 

Bauer, K.H., 37. 

Beach, 80. 

Beauty, as the stamp of adapted- 

ness in organic evolution, 195- 
196; as unity, sublimity and 
compassion in human evolution, 

Bentley, 24, 184. 

Bcrgmann, 44. 

Bergson, H., 8, 176. 

Bernard, C, 28, 35. 

Berrill, 73-74, 189. 

Bertalanffy, 15, 23, 77, 109, 152. 

Bevan-Brown, M., 90. 

Biological evolution, contrasted 
with human, 1-3, 13-16, m- 
IJ 3> J 37> * s terminated, 98; 
completed in human evolution, 
142-143, 158-160, 188-189, 194- 

Biology and physics, 14-15, 23, 

Bio-philosophy, 7, 24-27, 191-192. 

Bio-sphere, 21, 125, 126. 

Biotic interferences, 54^5. 

Birdsell, 45. 

Bodhidharma; 155. 

Boland, 87. 

Bolk, 75, 76. 

Boule, 68. 

Boyd, 141. 

Brain, in man and ape, 61, 74-76; 
acquired later than tools, 66-67; 
its size and growth, crucial in 
the evolutionary scale, 60-63; 
and human retardation, 73-74; 
its hypertrophy pathological 
108-109, 151; capacity of the 
visceral brain deficient for 
emotional control, 152-153. 

Brosin, 155-156. 

Bucke, 182. 



Buddha, 135, 150, 151, 155. 
Buddhism, 194. 
Burnett, W., 113, 153. 
Burrow, T., 120. 
Burt, C, 129. 
Buxton, 44, 45. 

Cameron, 23. 

Cannon, W.B., 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 
39> 58. 

Cantril, H., 108. 

Carpenter, 86, 107. 

Carrel, 156. 

Carter, 66, 

Chaitanya, 135, 155. 

Chance, E., 115. 

Chardin, 21, 67, 125. 

Childhood, and human evolution 
and behaviour, 77-79. 

Christ, 135, 150, 151, 155. 

Cohen, 24. 

Coon, 44, 45, 87. 

Comfort, A., 77, 

Confucius, 150, 151, 155. 

Conscience, evolution of, 77-78; 
its role in human evolution, 

Convergence, of factors at various 
dimensions in human evolution, 

Cortical, function and human evo- 
lution, 151-153. 

Cosmic, evolution, 12, 26; emer- 
gence of a, mind, 188; imagina- 
tion 12; man, mind and culture, 
181-183; man's open, mind and 
mankind as a whole, 190-191; 
mind and values, 192-193; sig- 
nificance of man's, adventure, 

Count, 73. 

Crawford, 69, 95. 

Cuenot, 77. 

Darlington, 129, 147. 

Darwin, 157, 170, 178. 

Darwinism, 2, 143. 

da Vinci, L., 150. 

de Beer, 76, 81, 82. 

Dependency, human, its evolu- 
tionary role, 76-77. 

Descartes, 25, 151. 

Deutsch, 150. 

Dewey, J., 20, 23, 39, 41, 173, 184. 

Dey, C, 96. 

Dialectic, in organic and human 
evolution, 185-187. 

Dimensions, theory of, 1-3, 41-43, 
of behaviour, 16-17; of homeo- 
stasis, 30-32; problem of suc- 
cessive, and wholes, 22-23. 

Directiveness of behaviour, 39. 

Diseases, rooted in bio-social mal- 
adaptation, 37-38. 

Dobzhansky, 159, 170. 

Domestication, of plants and 
animals, 45-47; man's, effects 
on his evolution and behaviour, 

Drugs, and transformation of 
human traits, 156. 

Durkheim, E., 48. 

Ecology, of houses and habitations, 
52-54; relation of magic and 
religion to, 48-50; and human 
evolution, 41, 43, 45, 46, 55, 

Ecological, balance of life-com- 
munities, 18-19; beliefs and 
values of agricultural commu- 
nities, 50-52; natural history of, 
values, 46-48; permanence of, 
values, 43-46; unbalance on a 
global scale, 54-55; unity of the 
earth, 55-57. 

Einstein, 150, 157. 
Elsasser, 159. 
Emerson, 30, 39, 109. 
Endosmis, 8. 



Entropy, reversed in evolution, 14. 

Etkins, 87. 

Eugenics, 128-130. 

Evolution, beauty of, 195-197; 
bio-philosophical theory of 
open, 191-192; closed versus 
open, 193-194; dimensions of 
human adaptation and, 41-43; 
empirical principles in moral, 
177-178; human imagination, 
feeling and purpose in, 198- 
200; human mammal's brain and 
hand major instruments of, 
59-60; man's trans-biological and 
global, 1 80; of social impulses, 
65-66; ontological approach to 
value and, 174-175; ordering 
of values in moral, 171-173; 
principle of transcendence in, 
1 5 8-1 59; progressive pattern in 
moral, 175-177; qualitative 
changes in, and environmental 
control, 144-145; reversal of 
entropy in, 14-15; social, a 
process of value creation and 
communication, 165-166; stages 
of, of sociality, 98-100. 
Evolutionary, transcendence versus 
naturalism, 3, n, 26-27, 158- 
160, 164-165, 180-192. 

Family, affections crucial in human 
evolution, 64-66; its relations 
to permanent sexuality, 79-82; 
its corrosion, full of risks for 
human evolution, 96-97. 

Feiblcman, 23. 

Field concept, 5, 28. 

Flugel, 90. 

Foetalization, and brajb growth, 


France, A., 61, 
Freedman, 80, 152. 
Freud, 31, 82, 86, 90, 182. 

Gandhi, 135. 

Gasset, O., 122. 

Geddes-Thomson, 41, 42. 

Geddes, P., 42. 

Gehlen, 124. 

Genetics, and human evolution, 

126-129, 140-141, 155, 157. 
Geneotype, 62, 129, 140-141, 147. 
Gestalt, 24, 43. 
Gillen, 48. 
Glass, B., in, 155. 
Goldstein, 5, 108, in. 
Grinker, 30. 
Gross, 78. 
Guthrie, 31. 

Habitations, types of, 52-54. 

Hahn, 47. 

Haldane, J.B.S., 63, 98, 113, 128, 
153, 185. 

Hallowell, 70. 

Hand, human, its freedom, plasti- 
city and extension, 59-60; its 
crucial role in man's develop- 
ment, 60-62, 66-69. 

Hardy, T., 198. 

Harlow, 101. 

Harris, 90. 

Hart, 1 80. 

Hartman, R.S., 179. 

Hartmann, N., 42. 

Hartshorne, C, 20, 199. 

Hayes, 70. 

Hebb, 70. 

Hegel, 42. 

Henderson, 28. 

Henry, J., 36. 

Herrick, 16, 23, 39, 61, 74, 108, 


Hinde, 102. 

Hocking, 26. 

Homeostasis, and evolution, 28-30; 
and evolution of the human 
mammal, 58-59; biological con- 



tinuity of, 38-39; mind and * 
personality, 31-33; symbolic, 39- 

Homeostatic, criteria of, equilibr- 
ium in society, 32-33; norms at 
different dimensions of social 
environment, 33-35; values 
derived from, functions of dif- 
ferent orders and dimensions, 
29-34; heritage, external of man, 
34, 40. 

HOMO sapiens, date of emergence, 
96, 148; factors in his emer- 
gence, 62-69; his primate nature, 
75-77, 98-99; his differentiation 
from the hominids, 87-^89; his 
biological precariousness and 
fate, 122-124, 132-133, 149-150, 

^53- I 57- 

Hooker, 74. 

Hooton, 75. 

Homey, K., 122. 

Howells, 75. 

Hrdlicka, 153. 

Human, adaptation to climate, diet 
and region, 44-45; adaptation, 
essentially symbolic, 71-72; 
adaptability of, nature and be- 
haviour, 68-69; animal and, 
vocalisation, 105-106; and in- 
sect societies, no; balance of, 
uniqueness and humanness, 8- 
9; blend of instincts and intel- 
ligence in mammals and, in- 
113; childhood and, evolution 
and behaviour, 77-79; civilizing 
of sex and aggression in, mam- 
malian family, 88-90; discovery 
of, speech, 102-104; endless 
reciprocity between, nature and 
environment, 154-155; genetical 
system and world wide environ- 
ment, 140-141; imbalance bet- 

ween, intelligence and instinct, 
150-151; integral view of, 
nature and potentialities, 4-5, 
138; interpretation of, "transac- 
tions" in terms of highest 
wholes, 23-24; many-sided laps- 
es of, self-actualisatipn and 
spontaneity, 117-118; meaning 
of, environmental control, 18- 
19; origin and sexual latency, 
86; permanent sexuality and 
stability of, family, 79-81; pos- 
sibilities, 10-11; primacy of 
secondary, goals and satisfac- 
tions, 1 1 8; psycho-biological 
roots of, morality, 86-88; quali- 
tative improvement of, mind, 
153; retardation and, variability 
and educability, 75-77; stability 
and versatility in, social evolu- 
tion, 143; variability of, poten- 
tials, 113. 

Human Evolution, biological versus 
higher needs and values in, 
145; characteristics of open sys- 
tems of, 15-16; conscience the 
agent and drive of, 134-138; 
criteria and mechanisms of or- 
ganic and, 13-14; dialectic of 
ethical norms in, 183-187; dis- 
harmony between old and new 
mechanisms of, 148-149; dual 
phases and mechanisms of, 133- 
134; genesis of value-hierarchy 
in, 166-167; global range of , 
9-10, 141-143; hunting and, 61- 
65; infinitely open course and 
pattern of, 2-3, physiological 
homeostasis indicating trend of, 
35-37; role of language in, 106- 
108; role of sexual dimorphism 
in, 81-82; still an open question, 
149-150; tool and, 66-68; value 



scale fundamental in, 163-164; 

an open cosmic adventure, 3, 

u, 26, 27, 164-165, 180-192. 
Hunting, as way of living, crucial 

in human evolution, 63-65. 
Huxley, A., 118, 121, 122, 156. 
Huxley, J., i, 59, 98, 107, in, 

115, 133, 170. 

Individualization, of man, 62-63, 


Insect societies, 110-113, 116-117. 
Intelligence, 116, 118; and mass 

conditioning, 122. 
Isomorphism, 4, 22. 

Jaensch, 151. 
James, W., 108. 
Jaspers, K., n, 12, 137. 
Jennings, 84, 157. 
, *73> 182. 

Kant, 197. 
Karl Heim, 27. 
Keats, 196. 
Keith, 73, 76, 89. 
Klaatsch, 80. 85. 
Klein, 61. 
Kochelr, O., 115. 
Kohler, 81, 95, 96. 
Kroeber, A.L., 16, 42, 66. 
Kumner, 74 
Kurtz, 39. 

La Barre, 80, 91. 

Language, its role in animal's and 

man's evolution, 101, 105-108. 
Latency, period and human origin 

and behaviour, 86<-87. 
Laufer, 47. 
Laumoinejr, 156. 
Leakey, 66. 

Leibniz, 192. 
Le Play, 42. 
Lewis, C.S., 114. 
Life, 2-3, 14-15. 
Lindaur, 101. 
Lindzey, 70. 
Linton, 99. 
Locke, 25. 

Love, differences in man's and 
woman's, 90-91. 

Machean, P., 152. 

Magic and ecology, 48-50. 

Malinowski, 49. 

Mai thus, 130. 

Mammal, and human nature and 
evolution, 28, 29, 58, 95-97. 

Man, adaptation of, to undefined 
possibilities, 159-161; approxi- 
mation of, to transcendent quali- 
ty of nature, 161-162; as crea- 
ture and master of environment, 
139; as empirical scientific model 
6-8; as polygynous and pugna- 
cious mammal, 93-95; biological 
and psychological forecasts of, 
153-154; biological future of, 
123-124; common pool of tra- 
ditions in rektion to potentia- 
lities of, 124-126; comparative 
retardation in, and ape, 74-75; 
completion of cosmos by, 194- 
195; consequences of, becoming 
less mammalian in family, 91- 
93; contrasted social roles and 
set of dispositions in early, 84- 
85; dangers to, from inroads on 
both intelligence and instincts, 
116-117; future of, 155-157; 
genetic handicaps of, 21-22; 
instability of, 180-181; interact- 
ing factors in individualization 
of, 62-63; lop-sided mental deve- 



lopment of, 108-109; pre-or- 
dained harmony of cosmos and 
192; tendencies towards mono- 
gamy and domestication in, 
and ape, 83-84; world environ- 
ment and traditions of, 9. 

Mankind-as-a whole, scientific 
model of the theory of human 
evolution, 8, 10-12, 179-180. 

Marlow, A., 5, 7, 95, 108, 160, 

Mather, 140. 

Mathews, 115, 130. 

McDougall, 76. 

McKinley, 153. 

Medawar, 130. 

Migration, rhythm of, according to 
season and climate of early man, 
47-48; its role in human evolu- 
tion, 67, 94. 

Model of human evolution, 2, 5-8. 

Monogamy, in man and ape, 83- 
84; its role in man's social and 
mental evolution, 88-90. 

Montagu, Ashley, 59, 76, 91, 162. 

Montague, 12, 161, 194. 

Morality, its psycho-biological 
roots, 86-88; as instrument of 
human selection and evolu- 
tion, 173-175; dimensions of, 

Morris, 7. 

Moustakas, 5. 

Muensterberger, 75, 90. 

Mukerjee, R. K., 37, 42,45, 49, 
78, 81, 132, 162, 178. 

Muller, 44, 94, no, in. 

Mumford, 38. 

Murphy, G., 5, 31, 39, 76, 128, 

Needham, 15, 23. 
Negative entropy, 14. 
Neotony, 75, 76, 153. 
Newton, 25. 
Newmann, K.J., 173. 
Neumann, 166. 
Neurobio taxis, 71. 
Niebuhr, 179. 
Nissen, 69, 95. 
Noo-sphere, 21, 125, 126. 
Northrop, 23, 186. 
Novtikoff, 23. 

Oakley, K., 67. 

Oedipus Complex, its universality, 

Open system, of evolution, i, 14- 
16, 22, 193-194. 

Oppenheimer, 190, 192. 

Organization, in evolution, poten- 
tials of, 2-3, 15; excess of, 117- 

Orwell, G., 114. 

Over-pop ulation, its biological and 
social consequences, 130-133. 

Packard, 120, 121. 
Para-psychological communication, 


Parsons, 84. 
Peirce, 20. 
Pick, 29. 
Piel, no. 
Plato, 150. 
Play, its role in human evolution, 

78-79> *i- 
Physiognomy, man's progressive 

refinement of, 153. 
Polygyny, 93. 
Polymorphism, 150, in insect and 

man, 112, 113. 
Polytypicality> 94. 
Population, maldistribution of 

world, and resources, 56-57. 



Primate, to man, congruent factors 
in the transformation of* 60- 
65; nature providing the major 
element of human nature, 98. 

Psychological technology, dangers 
of, 121. 

Purpose, in organic evolution, 38- 
39; conscious, in human evolu- 
tion, i, 5, 16, 40. 

Pythagoras, 51. 

Read, Carveth, 84, 85. 
Redfield, 6. 
Rensch, 59, 76, 106. 
Retardation, its role in evolution 
of human nature and behaviour, 


Rev&z, 60. 

Revolt of the masses, due to dis- 
cord between civilized goals 
and biologic instincts and 
values, 122. 

Roberts, 108. 

Robinson, J. H., 182. 

Roe, i, 80, 152. 

Rogers, 108. 

Roheim, 82. 

Rostand, 156. 

Royce, 20. 

Russell, B., 25, 39, 114. 

Russell, D., 119. 

Russell, E.S., 39. 

Sankara, 150. 

Sankatacharya, 197. 

Santayana, 197. 

Scheler, 151. 

Schneirla, no. 

Schrodinger, 14. 

Schweitzer, 135. 

Schuttz, 75. 

Secondary sexual characteristics, 
significance of, in human evolu- 
tion, 79-83. 

Seidenberg, 114, 115, 116, 117. 

Self-transcendence, human instinct 
and value of, 159-163. 

Sex, its multi-dimensional func- 
tions in man, 80-8 1; man's ex- 
cessive endowment with, 79- 
80, 92, 126; civilizing of, 82-83, 
89, 91-92. 

Sexual dimorphism, 81. 

Sexuality, and human evolution 
and behaviour, 79-83. 

Shcarrington, 152. 

Signals, and symbols in animal 
behaviour, 100-102. 

Simpson, i, 133, 159. 

Sinnott, 38, 39. 

Smith, J.M., 83. 

Social, the highest category, 20. 

Social Darwinism, 5. 

Sociality, stages in its development, 
98-100; rooted in family versus 
open aggregation, 109-110. 

Socrates, 150, 155. 

Speech, and human nature and 
evolution, 68-70; genesis of, 

Spencer, 48. 

Spuhler, 59. 

Stability, as contrasted with in- 
stability in human evolution, 

3 6 > *43- 

St. Francis, 155. 
Steatopygy, 44. 
Stephen, K., 78. 
Symbolic, behaviour in ape and 

man, 69-71. 
Szekely, L., 86. 

Tarde, G., 92. 
Technology, failure of, 5 5 
Teitelbaum, 32. 
Telepathy, 155. 

Thermodynamics, second law of, 
3> 14- 


Thomson, 44, 70, 195. 

Thorpe, 116. 

Tinbergen, 102, 119. 

Tomlin, 89. 

Tools, and brains, 66-68; and human 

evolution, 62, 66, 69. 
Totalitarianism, 114, 117, 121. 
Toynbee, 47, 122. 

Transcendence or Wholeness, as 
the principle and value of human 
evolution, i, 11-12; tendencies 
in nature and life, 26-27, 158- 
159, 164, 188-191, 194, 195. 

Transactions, theory of, 4, 23-26, 

Triangular frame of evolutionary 
thought, 3-4, 41-43- 

Trotter, 116. 

Unified Theory of Evolution, 4, 


Unity, of man, 6-8, 21-22. 
Upright posture, human, basic and 

original, 61-63. 

Values, in the organic realm, 16-17; 
as directives of human evolu- 
tion, 1 8, 163-164; as social 
homeostatic controls, 30; ethics 
and the hierarchy of, 173-174; 
genesis of moral, 170-171; natu- 
ral history of, 17-18; rudimen- 

tary, and symbolic behaviour 
among higher apes, 69-70; 
guidance and direction of evo- 
lution by, system, 164-167; unifi- 
cation of cosmos by, 167-169. 

Vedanta, 199. 

Von Frisch, 100-102. 

Waddington, 78, 147, 178. 

War, a crime and perversion, 148- 


Ward, 87. 
Washburn, 59, 63. 
Web of life, 142. 
Wcidcnrcich, 149. 
Weisskopf, 166. 
Wells, H.G., 114. 
Wheeler, 109. 
Whitehead, 19, 20, 27, 42, 124, 

161, 165, 189, 191, 196, 197. 
Whyte, 27, 101, 152. 
Wiener, 14. 
Wilbur, 90. 
Williams, T.R., 68. 
World Civilization, 4, 9-10, 133- 


World ecology, 55-57. 
Wright, S., 62. 

Yerkes, 79, 89, 95, 96, 107, 109. 
Young, J.Z., 152. 

Zuckerman, 86.